God has woven throughout the Bible numerous types, shadows, and symbols. Proper and thorough interpretation of scripture is lost without understanding the meaning of these symbols. To neglect this field of study will lose the richness of God’s word, and the many different apsects of who Jesus is, and the destiny of His church. The letter ‘A’ is defined with primary meanings.


PRIMARY MEANING: The ministry of the High Priest.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Ex. 4, 28-29; Mic. 6:4; Heb. 5-7.

BASIC INFORMATION: Aaron, the older brother of Moses (from the tribe of Levi), was first high priest of the Hebrew nation. “Aaron” is from the Hebrew “‘Aharown” (Strong’s #175), which is of uncertain derivation. Some have translated “Aaron” to mean “illumined, enlightener, mountaineer (very lofty), high.” In the exodus from Egyptian bondage, Aaron was chosen by God as Moses’ official spokesman. Aaron’s sons were Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. At his death, Aaron’s garments of glory and beauty were transferred to his oldest living son, Eleazar. As high priest, Aaron alone went into the Holy of Holies once a year (the Day of Atonement) with the blood of bulls and goats to represent the priesthood and the people.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the great High Priest of the New Testament after the order of Melchisedec, in Whom is blended the offices of prophet, priest, and king (Gen. 14:18-20; Heb. 5:1-8:6). The Book of Hebrews contrasts the temporary, imperfect priesthood of Aaron (of Levi) with the eternal, immutable, perfect priesthood of Jesus Christ (of Judah) (Heb. 7:12). The Lamb of God offered up His own blood once-and-for-all (Jn. 1:29; Heb. 9:25-28). Jesus, our merciful and faithful High Priest, ascended and sat down on the right hand of the Majesty in the heavens (Heb. 2:17; 4:14; 8:1-6). His more excellent priestly ministry from the mercy-seat in the Most Holy Place is without prejudice, ministering to the needs of all men. Unlike Aaron who failed, Jesus the High Priest is “holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens” (Heb. 7:26).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Aaron’s priesthood typifies the New Testament “royal priesthood” of Jesus Christ (1 Pet. 2:5, 9-10). In Christ, every believer has been given kingly authority mingled with priestly mercy and compassion (Rev. 1:6; 5:10; 20:6). Jesus Christ has entered into that which is within the rent veil for us as a Forerunner after the order (manner, similitude) of Melchisedec (Heb. 6:20). The king-priest anointing of our heavenly Aaron is flowing down upon His Body, the Church (Psa. 133:2; Heb. 10:21). Aaron’s garments, which were for glory and beauty, prefigure the new nature and character of Jesus Christ which adorns His glorious Church (see Ex. 28:1-4; Lk. 24:49; Rom. 13:11-14; Eph. 4:24; 5:25-27; 6:10-18).


FURTHER STUDY: See Ex. 7:12; Num. 3:1-4; Deut. 10:6; 1 Chron. 6:3; 24:1; Psa. 77:20; 99:6; 105:26; 106:16; 115:10, 12; 118:3; 133:2; Lk. 1:5; Acts 7:40; Rom. 12:1-8; 2 Cor. 3:6; Heb. 3:1; 4:14-16; 5:1-10; 6:20; 7:5, 11-14, 24; 9:7, 11; 13:11; 1 Pet. 4:10-11.




PRIMARY MEANING: The obedient, righteous offerer.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 4:1-9; Matt. 23:35; Heb. 11:4; 12:24.

BASIC INFORMATION: Abel was the second son born to Adam and Eve. “Abel,” from the Hebrew “Hebel” (Strong’s #1893), means “emptiness or vanity,” has also been translated as “breath, vapor; transitoriness” (so called because of the shortness of his life). His brother Cain, a farmer, brought an offering of his produce to the Lord. Abel, a shepherd, brought an offering of the firstlings (the best quality) of his flock. The Lord respected Abel and his offering. Cain, full of envy, killed his brother and was cursed by God to be a fugitive and vagabond.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ, like righteous Abel, brought an offering of blood (Matt. 23:35). The Good Shepherd was slain out of envy (Matt. 27:18; Jn. 10:11; 15:25). Jesus Christ, like Abel’s offering, was an excellent Firstling (Eph. 5:2; 1 Pet. 1:19). The Lamb of God was accepted by the Father who bore witness that He was righteous (Lk. 23:47; Heb. 10:12; 11:4). His is “better” blood. Abel’s blood cried from the dust for vengeance. The blood of Jesus cries from the heavens for mercy and forgiveness (Heb. 12:24). Like Abel, the first righteous martyr, the life of the Son of God was cut short at Calvary at the hands of evil men, His justice denied (Isa. 53:8; Dan. 9:24-27; Acts 8:32-33).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: There is a divine order in man’s approach to God (1 Cor. 14:40)–the way of sacrifice, exampled by blood and worship (see Jn. 4:23-24; 2 Tim. 3:5; Heb. 9:22; 1 Pet. 2:5). This was anticipated in the Old Testament Mosaic pattern (Ex. 25:40) by the Brazen Altar (the blood) and the Golden Altar (the incense, a symbol of worship). The way of the righteous is “by faith” (Heb. 11;1-6). Abel believed God’s Word and acted upon it. We are to honor the Lord with our substance, and with the firstfruits of all our increase (Prov. 3:9).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 4:25; Ex. 13:12; Num. 18:12, 17; Lev. 17:11; Mal. 3:8-12; Psa. 19:14; 20:3; 78:70-72; Lk. 11:51; Jn. 14:6; Acts 4:12; Rom. 5:9; 2 Cor. 9:6-7; Eph. 1:7; Col. 1:14; Heb. 9:22; 13:15; 1 Jn. 3:11-12.


PRIMARY MEANING: Priestly compromise, lesser priesthood.

KEY SCRIPTURES: 1 Sam. 22:20-22; 2 Sam. 15:29; 1 Kg. 2:27.

BASIC INFORMATION: Abiathar, son of Ahimelech and descendant of Eli, was one of two chief priests in the court of David. “Abiathar,” from the Hebrew “‘Ebyathar” (Strong’s #54), is taken from “‘ab” (father) and “yathar” (to jut over or exceed; to excel). “Abiathar” has also been translated as “father of abundance, the great one is father.” Abiathar was the only one to escape Saul’s brutal massacre of the priests of Nob (who helped David). When David eventually became king, he appointed Abiathar, along with Zadok, as priests in the royal court. After David’s death, during the struggle over kingly succession, Abiathar supported Adonijah. When Solomon emerged as the new ruler, Zadok was appointed priest. Abiathar escaped execution because of his earlier devotion to David, but he and his family were banished to Anathoth.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Abiathar, descendant of Eli, represents a lesser priesthood. As the law of sin and death was replaced by a higher law (the life of Christ), so Jesus Christ, like righteous Zadok, prevailed in the Kingdom (Heb. 7:1-2). Paul explained, “For the priesthood being changed, there is made of necessity a change also of the law…after the similitude of Melchisedec there ariseth another priest, who is made, not after the law of a carnal commandment, but after the power of an endless life” (Rom. 8:1-2; Heb. 7:12-16; 8:1-6). Like Abiathar who could not remain in Jerusalem, the law was our temporary schoolmaster to bring us to Christ (Gal. 3:16-25).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We cannot have two priesthoods, two principles–law and grace–working in our lives (Gal. 5:17). In the end, Abiathar supported the hidden rebellion of Adonijah rather than the wisdom of Solomon (1 Kg. 2:12-27). He was a descendant of Eli, the fleshly priest in Shiloh who would not restrain his sons. Abiathar’s dismissal by Solomon fulfilled the Word of the Lord (1 Sam. 2:31-35). We must remain faithful to the end, to the saving of the soul (Heb. 10:38-39). Those who handle holy things–the ephod, the Ark–cannot compromise. Like Abiathar’s name, there are many ministries who have tasted greatness and blessing, only to be disapproved in the end, and sent to their “own fields” (1 Kg. 2:26; Gal. 6:7). It is not enough to arrive in Zion–we must abide there (Psa. 15; 24). Our fruit must remain (Jn. 15:1-16).


FURTHER STUDY: See 1 Sam. 23:6, 9; 30:7; 2 Sam. 8:17; 15:24, 27-29; 15:35-36; 17:15; 19:11; 20:25; 1 Kg. 1:7, 19, 25, 42; 2:22, 26-27, 35; 4:4; 1 Chron. 15:11; 18:16; Matt. 24:13; Mk. 2:26; Rom. 2:7; 1 Cor. 1:8; Heb. 3:6, 14.



PRIMARY MEANING: The virtuous woman, the Church.

KEY SCRIPTURES: 1 Sam. 25; 1 Chron. 3:1; Prov. 31:10-31.

BASIC INFORMATION: Abigail, the wife of foolish Nabal, later became the bride of King David. “Abigail” is from the Hebrew “‘Abiygayil” (Strong’s #26) and means “father (or source) of joy,” taken from “‘ab” (father) and “giyl” (a revolution; to spin around under the influence of any violent emotion). “Abigail” has also been translated as “source of exultation, cause of delight.” She was a woman of good understanding with a beautiful countenance (1 Sam. 25:3). Her husband, Nabal, was an ill-tempered, drunken man who refused to feed David and his mighty men. David threatened to plunder Nabal’s possessions and kill Nabal himself, but wise Abigail interceded. After Nabal’s death, David married Abigail, who bore his son Chileab.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ, the greater Son of David (Matt. 1:1; Lk. 1:30-33), is the Captain of our salvation, the leader of His mighty brethren (Rom. 8:29; Heb. 2:10-13). He is the Husband of the Church, having rescued us from bondage to sin and satan. The apostle wrote, “For the husband is the head of the wife, even as Christ is the Head of the Church: and He is the Saviour of the body (Eph. 5:22-33). Jesus has sent for His Bride for the purpose of union and communion (1 Sam. 25:39). He has covered our nakedness, the shame of sin, and has entered into blood covenant with us–we are His (Ezek. 16:8)!


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Before we were joined to Jesus Christ, we were married to “Nabal,” which means “a fool.” We were slaves of satan, bound by the law of sin and death (Rom. 6:1-14; Eph. 2:1-3). “Nabal” has also been translated as “empty, vain, stupid, abandoned, wicked, ungodly, an empty skin, a leather water bottle, carcass, corpse”–a vivid description of life without the Lord. The devil is “Belial,” the worthless one (1 Sam. 25:25). Our old lifestyle under his evil hand was “churlish” (cruel, rough, harsh)–the way of transgressors is hard (1 Sam. 25:3; Prov. 13:15). But Jesus, the heavenly David, came that we might have life, and have it more abundantly (Jn. 10:10). His yoke is easy and His burden is light (Matt. 11:30). Now that we have a new Husband, the joy of the Lord is our strength (Neh. 8:10). Fall at His feet and acclaim Him King (1 Sam. 25:24, 30)!


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 2:24; 1 Sam. 27:3; 30:5; 2 Sam. 2:2; 3:3; Psa. 45:10-17; Prov. 15:24; 31:10-31; Jer. 3:14; Hos. 2:19-20; Jn. 3:29; Rom. 7:1-6; 1 Cor. 11:3-10; 2 Cor. 11:1-3; Col. 1:9-13, 18; 1 Pet. 2:9-10; 3:1-7; Rev. 19:16.



PRIMARY MEANING: Human plans to revive the old order.

KEY SCRIPTURES: 1 Kg. 1:1-4, 15; 2:17-22; Psa. 127:1.

BASIC INFORMATION: Abishag was a young woman from Shunem employed by David’s physicians to care for him in his old age. “Abishag,” from the Hebrew “‘Abiyshag” (Strong’s #49), means “father of error (blundering),” and is taken from “‘ab” (father) and “shagah” (to stray, mistake, reel from intoxication). “Abishag” has also been translated as “father of ignorance, cause of wandering.” The strategy of David’s doctors was that Abishag’s youth could revive the dying king, but their plan failed. After David’s death, his son Adonijah asked permission to marry Abishag. Solomon perceived this act as an attempt to seize the throne, and had Adonijah killed. Some believe this fair damsel to be the lovely Shulamite mentioned in the Song of Solomon.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ, our heavenly David, can get “no heat” (1 Kg. 1:1; Matt. 1:1). He wants the undivided attention of His Church, apart from the traditions of men (Mk. 7:13). Like the beautiful Abishag, the fairest ambitions of men may be sought out and offered in honest devotion to the Lord, but David “knew her not” (1 Kg. 1:4). There was no intimacy, no reproduction of life. The Lord will profess to many in the day of judgment, “I never knew you: depart from Me, ye that work iniquity” (Matt. 7:23).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: The wisdom of man is foolishness with God (1 Cor. 1:18-29). There are times and seasons in our lives (Eccl. 3:1-8). When God is finished with something, no number of young, fresh Abishags (churches, movements, ministries, programs, ideas, methods) can revive it (Jn. 19:30). Don’t err or stray from the truth. Let it go. It is like Ishmael, man’s attempt to produce the promise of God (Gen. 16:1-4). The deadness of the letter cannot minister the spirit of His resurrection life (Rom. 8:11; 2 Cor. 3:1-6; Phil. 3:9-11). David did not “know” Abishag. One may do many admirable things for the Lord, but it is imperative that each knows Him as King and Lord (Matt. 7:21-23). Only Jesus can build His Church (Psa. 127:1; Matt. 16:18). Man’s ways will always fail (Prov. 14:12).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 11:4-6; Psa. 5:5; 6:8; 99:8; 106:29, 39; Prov. 8:12; Eccl. 7:29; Song 6:13; Jer. 2:12-13; Matt. 25:12; Lk. 13:27; Jn. 10:14, 27-30; Gal. 1:6-10; 4:21-31; 5:1-8; 2 Tim. 3:1-7; 2 Tim. 2:19-22; 1 Jn. 4:1-3.



PRIMARY MEANING: The man of faith who is given the promise.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 12-22; Rom. 4; Gal. 3-4; Heb. 11:8-19.

BASIC INFORMATION: Abraham, originally Abram, was the first great patriarch of the Book of Genesis, the pattern and model of faith. “Abram” is transliterated from the Hebrew “‘Abram” (Strong’s #87) which means “high father.” Taken from “‘ab” (father) and “ruwm” (to be high, rise or raise), “Abram” has also been translated as “exalted father.” “Abraham” is transliterated from “‘Abraham” (Strong’s #85) and means “father of a multitude.” Taken from “‘ab” (father) and an unused root meaning “to be populous,” “Abraham” has also been translated as “father (source, founder) of a multitude.” This change of name (or nature) for Abraham (Abram) and Sarah (Sarai) came when God by His Spirit breathed His name (the “h” sound of “Jah”) into them (Gen. 17:5, 15).


Abraham had journeyed from Ur of the Chaldees to Haran. While there, at the age of 75, the father of faith received God’s call to a strange, unknown land. The Lord promised Abraham that He would make him and his descendants a great nation (seemingly impossible because his wife Sarah was childless). But Abraham obeyed, taking his wife and his nephew, Lot. The Lord then affirmed His promise to Abraham as a covenant. Sarah gave Abraham her handmaiden, Hagar, who bore him Ishmael. The renewed covenant of Genesis 17 required Abraham and the male members of his household to be circumcised. The name of the promised son would be Isaac. The ultimate test of Abraham’s faith was the command to offer up his only son Isaac. The father of the Hebrews died at the age of 175 and was buried alongside Sarah in the cave of Machpelah, near Hebron.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the “Son of Abraham” and the “Seed of Abraham” (Matt. 1:1; Gal. 3:16). All covenants consummate in Him who has been appointed Heir of all things (Heb. 1:1-2). Jesus confirmed or secured the promises made unto the fathers–Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Acts 3:13; Rom. 15:8). Abraham was promised the “land.” He looked for a city which hath foundations, whose builder and maker is God (Heb. 11;10). The New Testament “land” is the earth (see Psa. 2:8; Psa. 24:1; Rom. 4:13; Matt. 5:5). The “city” for which Abraham sought is the “city” which Jesus builds–the New Testament Church, the Bride, the Lamb’s wife (see Matt. 5:13-16; 16:18; Gal. 4:26; Heb. 12:22-24; Rev. 21:9-10).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Those who belong to Jesus Christ are “Abraham’s Seed” (Matt. 1:1; Gal. 3:27-29; 1 Jn. 4:17). Other New Testament terms conveying the same truth declare that Christians are spiritual Jews (Rom. 2:28-29), “the children of the promise” (Rom. 9:6-8), the “chosen (people)generation” and “holy nation” (Matt. 21:42-43; 1 Pet. 2:9-10), the true “circumcision” (Phil. 3:3), the “new (heavenly) Jerusalem” (Jn. 4:19-24; Heb. 12:22-24), and the real “Israel of God” (Gal. 6:16). There is one covenantal people of the ages who have pleased God by faith (Heb. 11). The Church is living in the extremities of that one covenantal promise (see Jn. 4:38; Rom. 15:4; 1 Cor. 10:1-11; Heb. 11:39-40; 12:1-2). Abraham is the father, and his life the pattern of all those who live and walk by faith (Gal. 3:6-9, 14, 16, 18, 29; Heb. 11:1-6). As with Abraham, every Christian who meets “Jehovah-jireh” (Gen. 22:14; Phil. 4:19) must separate from:


1. Country (Gen. 12:1) – Boundary lines or limits on God.

2. Kindred (Gen. 12:1) – Family ties.

3. Egypt (Gen. 13:1) – The world (1 Jn. 2:15-17).

4. Lot (Gen. 13:11) – Carnal Christians.

5. A desire to get wealth (Gen. 14:21-24) – Matt. 6:33.

6. Ishmael (Gen. 21:9-14) – Man’s wisdom and strength.

7. Isaac (Gen. 22:1-14) – The gift or the Giver?


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 11:26-31; Ex. 3:6; 1 Chron. 1:27-28; Psa. 47:9; 105:6, 9, 42; Isa. 41:8; 51:2; Mic. 7:20; Matt. 1-2, 17; 3:9; 8:11; 22:32; Mk. 12:26; Lk. 1:55, 73; 3:34; 13:16, 28; 16:23-30; 19:9; Jn. 8:39-58; Acts 3:13, 25; 7:2, 8, 16-17, 32; 13:26; Rom. 9:7; 11:1; 2 Cor. 11:22; Gal. 4:21-31; Heb. 2:16; 6:13; 7:1-9; Jas. 2:21-23; 1 Pet. 3:6.



PRIMARY MEANING: Rebellion, the spirit of antichrist.

KEY SCRIPTURES: 1 Sam. 15:22-23; 2 Sam. 3:3; 15:1-18:18; 1 Chron. 3:2.

BASIC INFORMATION: Absalom was the arrogant, insolent son of David who tried to take the kingship from his father by force. “Absalom” is from the Hebrew “‘Abiyshalowm” (Strong’s #53) and means “father of peace (friendly).” It is taken from “‘ab” (father) and “shalowm” (safe well, happy; welfare, health, prosperity, peace). Absalom was David’s third son by Maacah, the daughter of the king of Geshur. A charming prince with the people and a favorite of his father, he was especially proud of his beautiful long hair. Exiled for the murder of his brother Amnon (to avenge their sister Tamar), Absalom eventually returned to Jerusalem and secretly plotted to dethrone his father. David learned of these rebellious acts and fled to Mahanaim. Absalom was formally anointed king, then crossed the Jordan River to meet David’s army. Defeated, Absalom tried to flee, but his head (not his hair) caught in the thick boughs of a tree where he was killed by General Joab and his men.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the Son and Seed of David (Matt. 1:1; Lk. 1:30-33). The path of David’s flight from Absalom, passing through the eastern Kidron Valley as he went up weeping “by the ascent of mount Olivet” (2 Sam. 15:23, 30), is the same as King Jesus’ departure from Jerusalem to pray in Gethsemane on the night of His arrest (Matt. 26:30). The Kidron Valley (which means “dusky, ashy; to mourn”) ran past the Temple, Calvary, the Garden of Gethsemane, and the Mount of Olives, tracing the steps of King Jesus, the Son of God.


APPLIED TO THE BELIEVER: Many acknowledge Jesus as Savior without bending their knee to Him as Lord (Lk. 2:9-11; Acts 2:36). Absalom lived in the king’s city but never saw the king’s face (Matt. 7:21-23). His spirit of rebellion and stubbornness is the spirit of antichrist–witchcraft, iniquity, and idolatry (1 Sam. 15:22-23). Various Hebrew words translated as “rebellion” in the King James Version carry the ideas of “bitterness; revolt (to break away from just authority); rush upon; resist, provoke; trespass; apostasy, crime.” Absalom stole (deceived by false impressions) the hearts of the men of Israel (2 Sam. 15:6). These attitudes can even work among Spirit-filled people, for “fifty” (the number of Pentecost) men ran before Absalom (2 Sam. 15:1). This insubordinate boy-king reminisces the scheming, politicking nature of Jacob the supplanter (Gen. 32:27-28). “Antichrist” means “instead of Christ (the anointing)”–the humanistic alternative (1 Jn. 2:18-23; 4:3; 2 Jn. 1:7). Absalom’s problem was his head (human wisdom)–it eventually meant his death (2 Sam. 18:9-15).


FURTHER STUDY: See Num. 14:9; Deut. 31:27; Josh. 22:16-22; 2 Sam. 18:17-18; 2 Chron. 11:20-21; 13:6; 36:13; Neh. 9:17; Job 24:13; Psa. 39, 41, 55; Prov. 6:16-19; 17:11; Ezek. 2:3; Dan. 9:5; 2 Cor. 10:3-6; 2 Thess. 2:3-4; 1 Jn. 2:18; 4:1-3.



PRIMARY MEANING: The humanity of Christ, Head and Body.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Ex. 25:5, 10, 23; Jn. 1:14; 1 Tim. 3:16.

BASIC INFORMATION: Acacia (shittim) was a large thorny tree with rough, gnarled bark. “Acacia” is from the Hebrew “shittah” (Strong’s #7848) and means “the acacia (from its scourging thorns).” It is taken from “shotet” (to pierce; to flog; a goad), a denominative of “showt,” the Hebrew word for “lash” and translated as “scourge, whip” in the King James Version. The Hebrew word for “wood” in the phrase “shittim wood” (with reference to Moses’ Tabernacle) is “‘atsab” (Strong’s #6087) and means “to carve, fabricate or fashion.” It is taken from “‘ets,” the Hebrew word for “tree, wood, timber, stick, stalk.” Acacia wood is orange-brown and hard-grained, repelling insects and turning darker with age. It bore long locust-like pods with seeds inside and produced round, fragrant clusters of yellow blossoms. Many species of acacia grew in the desert of Sinai, in southern Palestine, and in Egypt. It has a nature that enables its roots to force themselves into the driest of soils. Acacia wood was used to build the ark of the covenant and the Tabernacle of Moses in the wilderness. The acacia is called “shittim wood” and “shittah” in the King James Version. The Septuagint (LXX), the Greek Old Testament, renders “shittim wood” as “incorruptible wood.”


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the Seed of the woman, the Son of man (Gen. 3:15; Jn. 3:14-16). The mystery of godliness is that the Word was made flesh (Jn. 1:14; 1 Tim. 3:16). Jesus, who knew no sin, was made sin for us, bearing the curse of the law, symbolized by the thorns of the acacia (2 Cor. 5:17-21; Gal. 3:13; 4:4-5). He was in all points tempted like as we are, fully qualified to be the one Mediator between God and man (1 Tim. 2:5; Heb. 2:14-18; 4:14-16; 7:25-27). Jesus, the Tree of life, died on a wooden cross, typified by the brazen altar made of acacia wood (Ex. 27:1; Jn. 11:25-26; Rev. 22:2, 14). The life of the Father within Him was a wellspring enabling the Pattern Son to overcome the world (Isa. 53:2; Jn. 16:33). His body did not see corruption in the tomb (Psa. 16:10; Acts 2:31).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: The Tabernacle of Moses models the Church, God’s dwelling-place (Ex. 25:8; Rev. 21:3). The many varieties of the acacia with its assorted uses reveal the diversity of the Body of Christ (Rom. 12; 1 Cor. 12). The boards of the Tabernacle prefigure the members of Christ’s Body, built and fitly framed together to form a habitation of God through the Spirit (Ex. 26:15; 1 Cor. 12:27; Eph. 2:19-22; 4:16). We have been cut down in repentance (Acts 2:38), then carved and shaped by the Word of God for the Master’s specific use (Rom. 12:1-2; Gal. 4:19; Heb. 4:12)). Our former existence in a “body of sin” is past. As a new creation, our bodies have become “the temple of God” (Rom. 6:5-8; 1 Cor. 3:16-17). Ultimately, we shall receive an incorruptible body and crown like that of our Lord (1 Cor. 9:25; 15:51-58; Phil. 3:21).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 2:9; 3:22-24; Ex. 25:10, 23; 26:15, 26, 32, 37; 27:1; 30:1; 35:24; 36:20; Num. 25:1; Deut. 10:3; Josh. 2:1; 3:1; Prov. 3:18; 11:30; 13:12; 15:4; Isa. 41:19; Mic. 6:5; 1 Cor. 3:12; 2 Cor. 5:1-5; 2 Tim. 2:20; 1 Pet. 1:4; Rev. 2:7; 9:20; 18:12.



PRIMARY MEANING: Things devoted to God.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Josh. 6:17-18; 1 Chron. 2:7; Gal. 1:6-10.

BASIC INFORMATION: The “accursed thing” was anything put under a curse, and thus doomed, such as the city of Jericho. In the New Testament, the apostle Paul pronounced a curse on anyone who preaches a false gospel. However, the primary idea of the “accursed thing” was positive, not negative. The Hebrew word is “cherem” (Strong’s #2764) and means “shutting in a net; a doomed object; extermination.” Taken from the primitive root “charam” (to seclude by a ban, to devote to religious services), this word is also translated as “dedicated thing” or “devoted thing” in the King James Bible. The clear implication is that of something offered for complete consumption. Jericho belonged wholly to the Lord, to be offered up as a burnt offering. In the New Testament, the word “anathema” is transliterated from the Greek and means “accursed, separated.” To act greedily and take what was devoted to destruction brought the curse on the taker as well as others, as in the case of Achan.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ was the supreme Offerer and Offering. As Offerer, He had one passion–to do the complete will of the Father (Matt. 3:17; Jn. 8:29; 17:4). As the consummate Offering, He was completely devoted as mankind’s once-and-for-all sin oblation (see Dan. 9:27; Jn. 1:29; 1 Cor. 5:7-8; 1 Pet. 1:18-19; Heb. 8-10). Jesus was the whole burnt offering–all was God’s (Lev. 1). In His finished work of death and resurrection, our heavenly Joshua conquered every Jericho and broke down every wall (Eph. 2:14-16). The Captain of our salvation (Heb. 2:10) bore the penalty of the curse of the law–sin, sickness, poverty, and death (Deut. 28; Isa. 53; Rom. 6:23).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We have been made stewards of the Gospel and grace of God (1 Cor. 4:1-2; 1 Pet. 4:10).


All is His, especially the tithe (Lev. 27:32; Mal. 3:8-12). When men, like Achan, take for themselves that which belongs to the treasury of the Lord alone, it becomes an “accursed thing” to them (Josh. 6:19, 24; 7:1). The apostle admonished us to present our bodies “a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God,” which is our reasonable service (Rom. 12:1-2; Phil. 2:17; 2 Tim. 4:6-8). The separated life is the ascended life (Prov. 15:24; Col. 3:1-3).


FURTHER STUDY: See Lev. 27:21, 28-29; Num. 18:14; Deut. 7:26; 13:17; Josh. 7:11-15; 22:20; 1 Sam. 15:21; 1 Kg. 20:42; 1 Chron. 2:7; Psa. 29:1-2; Prov. 3:9-10; Ezek. 44:29; Zech. 14:11; Mal. 4:6; Rom. 9:3; 1 Cor. 12:3; 16:22; 2 Cor. 8-9; Gal. 1:8-9.




PRIMARY MEANING: The place of trouble; door of hope.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Josh. 7:24-26; Isa. 65:10; Hos. 2:15; Jn. 10:7, 9.

BASIC INFORMATION: Achor was a valley near Jericho where Achan and his family were stoned to death in the days of Joshua. “Achor” is taken from the Hebrew “‘Alowr” (Strong’s #5911) which means “troubled.” Its root “‘akar” (Strong’s #5916) means “to roil water; figuratively, to disturb or afflict.” “Achor” has also been translated as “affliction, sorrow.” The prophets used the phrase “the Valley of Achor” to symbolize the state of contentment and peace of the New Covenant in the days of Messiah.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is mankind’s only “Door of hope” (Hos. 2:15; Jn. 10:7, 9). As Hosea purchased sinful Gomer, Christ has redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us (Hos. 3:1-2; Gal. 3:13-14; Eph. 1:6-7). The Son of God loved us, and gave Himself for us, having washed us from our sins in His own blood (Gal. 2:20; Rev. 1:5). He has turned our troubled land into green pastures (Psa. 23:2; Isa. 65;9-10). The saving Shepherd has overcome the “tribulation” (pressure) of this world (Jn. 16:33), and has become the abiding hope of His flock (1 Cor. 13:13; 1 Thess. 5:8; 1 Tim. 1:1).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: All men are born unto trouble (Job 5:7), trapped in the Valley of Achor and bound by the penalty and curse of sin and death (Josh. 7:25; Rom. 3:10, 23; 6:23). Through our heavenly Hosea, we have been bought with a price (1 Cor. 6:19-20). Christians will experience much tribulation, (Acts 14:22; 1 Thess. 3:4), but are promised patience, comfort, and joy (Rom. 12:12; 2 Cor. 1:3-5; 7:4). Jesus Christ is our “Door of hope,” His indwelling Spirit our “hope of glory” (Hos. 2:15; Col. 1:27). We need not fear, though there will be many adversaries (1 Cor. 16:9). Our living hope is that we shall be like Him when He appears (1 Pet. 1:3; 1 Jn. 3:1-3).


FURTHER STUDY: See Josh. 15:7; Prov. 15:6; Lam. 3:21; Ezek. 37:11-14; Zech. 9:12; Acts 14:27; Rom. 5:3; 8:35; 2 Cor. 2:12; Gal. 4:1-7, 19; Eph. 1:18; 4:4; Col. 4:3; 2 Tim. 2:9; Tit. 2:13; Heb. 7:19; Rev. 1:9; 2:10; 3:8; 4:1; 7:14.


11. ADAM

PRIMARY MEANING: The old man, the adamic nature.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 1:26-28; 2:19-23; 5:1-2; Job 31:33; Rom. 5:12-21; 1 Cor. 15:21-22.

BASIC INFORMATION: Adam was the first man, the federal head of the human race. “Adam” is transliterated from the Hebrew “‘adam” (Strong’s #120) and means “ruddy, a human being.” Its root means “to show blood (in the face); flush or turn rosy.” Adam was created by God on the sixth day of creation, and placed in the Garden of Eden. He and his wife Eve, created by God from one of Adam’s ribs, became the ancestors of all people now living on the earth. His transgression brought about the fall of the human race.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the “Last Adam,” the federal Head of the new creation, the spiritual race (1 Cor. 15:45). He is the Seed of the woman, the “Son of man” (Gen. 3:15; Mk. 10:45; Jn. 3:14). These terms speak of Jesus’ humanity, that He was made of a woman, made in the likeness of men, and tempted in all points like as we are, yet without sin (Gal. 4:4; Phil. 2:7; Heb. 4:15). Jesus is the Word made flesh (Jn. 1:14). This second Man is the Lord from Heaven, the Beginning of the new creation Man (1 Cor. 15:47; Eph. 4:24; Rev. 3:14).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: The adamic nature is called the “old man” (Rom. 6:6; Eph. 4:22; Col. 3:9). The Christ nature is called the “new man” (Eph. 2:15; 4:24; Col. 3:10).


All men have died in Adam and were born in sin (Rom. 5:12-21; Eph. 2:1). There is none righteous, no, not one (Rom. 3:10, 23). As we have borne the image of the earthy, so let us now put on and wear the image of the heavenly (1 Cor. 15:49). Paul declared, “For since by man came death, by man came also the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive” (1 Cor. 15:21-22).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 2:17; 3:8-9, 17-21; 4:1, 25; Job 31:33; Isa. 9:6; Ezek. 3:15; Lk. 3:38; Jn. 5:21-29; 6:27, 53; 12:23; Acts 7:56; Rom. 5:12-21; 1 Cor. 15:44-49; 1 Tim. 2:5, 13-14; Heb. 2:6-9, 14-18; 10:12; 1 Jn. 4:1-3; Jude 1:14; Rev. 1:13; 14:14.




PRIMARY MEANING: The unyielding mind of Christ.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Ezek. 3:9; Zech. 9:12; Phil. 2:5.

BASIC INFORMATION: Adamant is a hard stone of superior strength. “Adamant” is from the Hebrew “shamiyr” (Strong’s #8068) which means “pricking; a thorn; also (from its keenness for scratching) a gem, probably the diamond.” Translated in the King James Version as “adamant (stone), brier, diamond,” its root means “to hedge about (as with thorns), guard; to protect, to attend to.” The exact identity of the adamant is unknown, but it is believed to be corundum, the hardest of all minerals next to the diamond. Pure corundum is colorless and is the source of such gems as rubies and sapphires.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the heavenly Ezekiel, the priest-prophet determined to do the will of the Father, whose forehead is an adamant harder (stronger) than flint (Ezek. 3:9). The Savior’s face was made strong against the impudent and hardhearted faces of men (Ezek. 3:8, 10). His resolve to please the Father was hard and firm, impenetrable. The Lion of the tribe of Judah was fearless to face and swallow up the curse of the law of sin and death (Isa. 25:8; 1 Cor. 15:54-57; Rev. 5:5). His lovely head was wrapped with thorns (Matt. 27:29; Mk. 15:17; Jn. 19:2, 5). Jesus Christ, the light of Israel, was the devouring fire that burned the thorns and briers (the curse) “in one day” (Gen. 3:18; Isa. 10:17; Jn. 1:29)–the day He died on Calvary.


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: The apostle admonished, “Let this mind be in you, which was also in Christ Jesus” (Phil. 2:5). Like the rebellious nation in Ezekiel’s day, worldly people have made their hearts as an adamant stone, lest they should hear the word of the Lord by His prophets (Zech. 7:12). But to be spiritually minded is life and peace (Rom. 8:6). God’s people have been given a sound mind, the mind of Christ (2 Cor. 2:16; 2 Tim. 1:7)–His Father’s name written in our foreheads (Rev. 7:3; 14:1; 22:4). The three revelation gifts of the Holy Spirit–the word of wisdom, the word of knowledge, and the discerning of spirits–enable Christians to think like God, to know things that natural men cannot know (1 Cor. 12:8-10).


FURTHER STUDY: See Ex. 7:13, 22; 8:19; 9:35; Deut. 4:15, 19; 11:8; 31:6; Judg. 1:28; 1 Sam. 17:49-50; 2 Chron. 16:9; 26:9; Isa. 5:6; 7:23-25; 9:18; 27:4; 32:13; Jer. 17:1; Hag. 2:4; Zech. 8:9, 13; Rom. 8:27; 12:2; 2 Cor. 10:3-6; Phil. 1:27; 2:1-5; 3:16; Heb. 4:12; 1 Pet. 1:13; 3:8; 4:1; 5:2.




PRIMARY MEANING: The devil and his poisonous works.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 3:1; Deut. 32:31-33; Psa. 91:13; 1 Jn. 3:8.

BASIC INFORMATION: A snake is the Bible’s first and final villain. The adder and asp are both common in the Holy Land. The Hebrew language reveals different meanings for the “adder”: a snapping serpent (Gen. 49:17), to twist (Psa. 58:4; 91:13), to extrude the tongue, hiss (Prov. 23:32). In the wilderness, the Israelites were plagued by “fiery” serpents. This may indicate the burning fever caused by their bite, or it may refer to the puff adder, which has yellow, flame-like markings. This creature will not bother anyone or anything until somebody steps on it.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the Seed of the woman who bruised the old (ancient) serpent’s head, destroying the works of the devil (Gen. 3:15; Hab. 3:13; 1 Jn. 3:8). The Lamb of God triumphed over satan in His cross and put all enemies under His feet (Jn. 1:29; Eph. 1:20-23; Col. 2:15). The Son of man was made sin for us when He was lifted up as the brass Serpent on the pole (Num. 21:6-9; Jn. 3:14; 2 Cor. 5:21). Jesus is the wise and harmless Son of God, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens (1 Cor. 1:30; Heb. 7:26; Jas. 3:17).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Before our salvation, we were satan’s slaves, bitten by sin–“the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom of asps” (Deut. 32:31-33; Eph. 2:1-3). We looked to the Son of God and lived as our sins were judged in Him (Num. 21:9). Because of Jesus’ victory over satan, we can shake off the beast and feel no harm (Acts 28:5). The greater One now lives within. As did our Lord, we can tread upon the lion and the adder, putting the enemy under our feet (Psa. 91:13; Rom. 16:20). Believers have been supernaturally enabled to “take up,” or “take away, remove” serpents (Mk. 16:18). Those sent forth by the Lord are to be wise as serpents, and harmless as doves, called to shine as lights in the world (Matt. 10:16; Phil. 2:15).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 3:13; Num. 21:6-9; Job 20:14-16; Psa. 140:3; Isa. 11:8; 14:29; 27:1; 53:10-12; 59:5; Jer. 8:17; Matt. 5:13-16; Lk. 21:15; Rom. 16:19; 2 Cor. 11:3, 14; Col. 1:9-13; Heb. 2:14-18; Rev. 12:9; 20:2.



PRIMARY MEANING: Hidden rebellion.

KEY SCRIPTURES: 1 Sam. 15:22-23; 2 Sam. 3:4; 1 Kg. 1:5-8; 1 Chron. 3:2.

BASIC INFORMATION: Adonijah was the fourth of the six sons born to David (by Haggith) while he was at Hebron. “Adonijah,” from the Hebrew “‘Adoniyah” (Strong’s #138), means “lord (worshiper) of Jah,” and has also been translated as “Jehovah is lord, my lord is Jehovah.” When David was old, Adonijah attempted to seize his throne, proclaiming himself king. Bathsheba, Solomon’s mother, and Nathan the prophet told David of Adonijah’s plot, and David immediately made Solomon his successor. The rebellious Adonijah foolishly attempt to usurp the monarchy after David’s death, asking for David’s beautiful Abishag in marriage–a blatant claim to the throne. This time Solomon ordered that the maverick prince be killed.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ, like Solomon, is the rightful King and Lord. Matthew realized that “a greater than Solomon is here” (Matt. 12:42). Jesus’ divine wisdom will prevail over all attempts to defraud His authority (1 Cor. 1:30; Col. 2:2-3; Jas. 3:17). The penalty of rejecting His lordship is death (Rom. 6:23; 8:1-6). Christ is King of kings and Lord of lords (Dan. 2:47; Rev. 19:16). Isaiah prophesied that Jesus would “bring forth judgment unto the Gentiles…He shall not fail nor be discouraged, till He have set judgment in the earth: and the isles shall wait for His law” (Isa. 42:1-5).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft, and stubbornness is as iniquity and idolatry (1 Sam. 15:22-23). To know Jesus as Lord is to do what He says (Matt. 7:21-23). As with Adonijah, if the seeds of rebellion and bitterness (unfulfilled vengeance) are not dealt with, they will eventually resurface, spring up, and defile many (1 Kg. 2:25; Heb. 12:15). To rebel against the King is to vex His Holy Spirit (Isa. 63:10; Jas. 4:4). The carnal mind is enmity against God; it is not subject to the law of God, neither can be (Rom. 8:7).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 14:4; Num. 14:9; Deut. 1:26; 21:18-20; 31:27; Josh. 1:18; 22:22; Judg. 2:19; Neh. 9:17; 1 Kg. 1:18, 49-53; 2:15-25; Job 24:13; Psa. 5:10; 78:8; 105:28; 107:11; Prov. 7:11; 17:11; Isa. 1:20; Jer. 29:32; Ezek. 2:3; Dan. 9:5; Acts 8:23; Rom. 3:14; Eph. 4:31; Heb. 12:15.




PRIMARY MEANING – Sonship, maturity, father-son relationship.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Rom. 8:15, 23; 9:4; Gal. 4:1-7; Eph. 1:5; 1 Jn. 3:1-3.

BASIC INFORMATION: Adoption commonly means the act of taking another parent’s child as one’s own. However, in Pauline theological thought, adoption also had to do with one’s own son coming of age. The heir was placed under the oversight of tutors and governors, to be trained in the ways that pleased the father. Upon maturity, the son was given his inheritance and the right to use the father’s name.


“Adoption” is from the Greek “huiothesia” (Strong’s #5206) which means “the placing as a son, adoption (figuratively, Christian sonship in respect to God).” Taken from


“huios” (a mature son) and “tithemi” (to place), it has more to do with the obtaining of our privileged position as sons than our being born as such.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the Pattern Son, the Firstborn among many brethren, the One appointed Heir of all things (see Matt. 21:37-38; Lk. 20:13-14; Rom. 8:29; Heb. 1:1-3). When the fullness of time was come, Jesus came forth, made of a woman, made under the law (Gal. 4:3-4). According to Isaiah’s great prophecy (Isa. 9:6-7), “the child” was born at Bethlehem, but “the son” was given thirty years later at the Jordan with the Father’s affirmation, “This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased” (Matt. 3:17; 12:18; 17:15). The four Gospels portray the ministry of the mature Son, especially what He did and said on the sabbath (Acts 1:1; Heb. 4:1-9). The name of the Father (all that He is, has, and does) was glorified in the Son (Jn. 17)–all the names of God mentioned in the Old Testament (the “El” names and the “Jehovah” names) find their complete fulfillment in the One who was God Almighty in the flesh (see Psa. 138:2; Jn. 1:14; Eph. 1:20-23; 1 Tim. 3:16).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Paul declared that believers have been redeemed to receive the Spirit of adoption (sonship) by the will of God, whereby we cry “Abba, Father” (Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:5-7; Eph. 1:5). We are the Seed of Abraham (Rom. 4:13; Gal. 3:7-16, 29). The primary issue is the maturation of the seed, the one destined as heir; until the time appointed by the Father, he is placed under the training hand of faithful “tutors and “governors” (Gal. 4:1-2)–the five-fold gifts of ministry from Jesus Himself to equip and mature the saints (Eph. 4:8-16). We are now the sons of God, but it does not yet appear what we shall be (1 Jn. 3:1-3)–the full measure of our sonship includes the redemption of our bodies (Rom. 8:23). In the New Covenant, God offered these rights of sonship to the Jew first (Jn. 1:11-13; Rom. 1:16-17; 9:4).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 15:3; 48:5, 14-22; Ex. 2:5-10; 4:22-23; Num. 6:27; Deut. 14:1; 26:18; 28:10; 2 Sam. 7:14; 1 Chron. 22:10; 28:6; 2 Chron. 7:14; Esth. 2:7; Isa. 8:18; 42:21; 43:1-7; Jer. 31:9, 20; Hos. 11:1; Matt. 5:9; 13:43; Acts 7:21; 15:17; Rom. 8; Gal. 3-4; Phil. 2:15; Heb. 2:6-13; 11:7, 24; 12:5-11; 2 Pet. 1:17; 1 Jn. 3-4; Rev. 21:7.




PRIMARY MEANING: The place of refuge for the heir.

KEY SCRIPTURES: 1 Sam. 22:1-2; Mic. 1:15; Rom. 8:14-18; Phil. 3:9-14; Heb. 6:18.

BASIC INFORMATION: Adullam is the name of a city situated southwest of Jerusalem, and the name of a large cave near this city where David took refuge when fleeing from King Saul. “Adullam” is transliterated from the Hebrew “‘Adullam” (Strong’s #5725), and has been translated as “justice or equity of the people.” The Hebrew word for “cave” is “me’arah” (Strong’s #4631) and means “a cavern (as dark).” It is taken from the primitive root “‘uwr” which means “to be bare or naked.” The Hebrew word for “refuge” means “shelter; to flee for protection; to confide in,” and is translated as “hope, trust” in the King James Version.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the greater Son of David who was appointed consummate Heir of all things (Matt. 1:1; Lk. 1:30-33; Heb. 1:1-2). He is the designated Captain over all mighty men who gather in Adullam to fellowship His sufferings (1 Sam. 22:2; Heb. 2:10). Jesus constantly resorted to the Father in prayer as His hope and strength (Jn. 8:1; 17:1-26; Heb. 5:7-9). In the solitude of complete surrender to do the will of the One who sent Him, the Son made Himself of no reputation (Jn. 8:29; Phil. 2:5-11). The ascended and glorified Christ has now become our high Tower and strong Consolation to which we flee for refuge to lay hold upon the hope set before us (2 Sam. 22:3; Heb. 6:18).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Jesus’ brethren have joined Him in the cave (Heb. 2:6-13). Samuel wrote, “And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over them” (1 Sam. 22:1-2). Heirs of God and joint-heirs with Christ must experience the fellowship of His sufferings (Phil. 3:9-14). Those who hurt and grieve with Him in the dark loneliness of Adullam will share the glory of His throne and Kingdom (see Mic. 1:15; Rom. 8:14-18; 2 Tim. 2:11-12; Rev. 3:21). The cave teaches men to forgive their enemies (1 Sam. 24). As with David, God is our refuge (see Psa. 9:9; 14:6; 46:1; 48:3; 57:1; 59:16; 62:7-8; 71:7; 91:2; 94:22; 104:18; 142:4-5).


FURTHER STUDY: See Num. 35:1-34; Josh. 12:15; 15:35; 20:1-9; 2 Sam. 23:13; 1 Kg. 18:4, 13; 19:9; 1 Chron. 11:15; 2 Chron. 11:7; Neh. 11:30; Prov. 14:26; Isa. 2:19; 4:6; 25:4; Jer. 16:19; Matt. 20:23; Rom. 6:3-5; 2 Cor. 1:5; Gal. 2:20; Col. 1:24; 1 Pet. 4:13-14.

17. AGAG

PRIMARY MEANING: The rule (king) of the flesh.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Num. 24:7; 1 Sam. 15:1-35; 28:18; Gal. 5:17.

BASIC INFORMATION: Agag is the name of the Amelekite king (descendants of Esau) whose army was defeated by King Saul. “Agag” is transliterated from the Hebrew “‘Agag” (Strong’s #90) and means “flame; Agag, a title of Amalekitish kings.” “Agag” has also been translated as “violent, high, warlike.” Saul disobeyed the directive of the Lord and spared Agag’s life. Because of his rebellion, Saul was rebuked by the prophet Samuel and rejected by the Lord. Agag was then hewn to pieces by Samuel in Gilgal.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ overcame the world, the flesh, and the devil (Jn. 14:30; 16:33; Col. 2;15). As David later defeated the Amalekites and “recovered all” (1 Sam. 30:18; 2 Sam. 8;12; 1 Chron. 18:11), Jesus was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin (Heb. 4:15). He confirmed the promises made to the fathers (Acts 3:13; Rom. 15:8). Typified as well by the praying prophet Samuel, Jesus completely destroyed the works of the flesh and the devil (Heb. 2:14-18; 1 Jn. 3:8) through the power of travailing prayer (Heb. 5:7-9; Jas. 5:16).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Like the Pattern Son, we are to get the victory over the flesh, that which wars against the law of our minds, bringing us into captivity to the law of sin (Rom. 7:23; Gal. 5:17). We are to overcome by the sword of the Spirit, the living Word of God (Eph. 6:17; Heb. 4:12). Proud, cruel Agag and all that he represents must be utterly destroyed (1 Sam. 15:32-33). We are not to spare Agag to save the best of things for our own boasting and consumption (1 Sam. 15:3, 9, 11; 1 Pet. 2:11-12). The “bleating of the sheep” and the “lowing of the oxen” will reveal our compromises–our sin will find us out (Num. 32:23; Gal. 6:7-8). To blame others is rebellion (1 Sam. 15:21-23).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 6:3; 36:12, 16; Ex. 17:8, 16; Num. 24:20; 1 Sam. 28:18; 1 Chron. 1:36; 4:43; Psa. 17:4; 83:7; Matt. 7:18; 12:30; Mk. 14:38; Rom. 7:5, 18, 25; 8:1-14; 1 Cor. 3:3; 2 Cor. 7:1; Gal. 5:13-21; 6:8; Eph. 2:1-3; Jas. 4:1; Rev. 21:27.



PRIMARY MEANING: Causing forgetfulness.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 41:51; Ex. 28:19; 39:12; Phil. 3:12-14; Rev. 21:9.

BASIC INFORMATION: Agate is one of many fibrous varieties of quartz. “Agate” is from the Hebrew “shebuw” (Strong’s #7618) which means “subdivision into flashes or streamers; to flame; a gem (from its sparkle), probably the agate.” It is akin to “shabiyb” (Strong’s #7632) which means “flame (as split into tongues),” translated in the King James Version as “spark.” Another Hebrew word translated as “agate” is “kadkod” (Strong’s #3539) and means “striking fire from a metal forged.” The agate was found in ancient times in a river bed in Sicily named Achotes–this name remained: in Greek, “achates;” in English, “agate.” Agate is semi-translucent, a form of chalcedony with bands or patterns (alternating layers) of various colors, mainly white, pale blue, and brown. The agate was the middle stone in the third row of Aaron’s breastplate–on this eighth stone was engraved the name of the tribe of Manasseh. Agate, bloodstone, carnelian, chrysoprase, flint, jasper, and onyx are all varieties of chalcedony. The chalcedony was the third stone in the foundation of the New Jerusalem (agate, RSV).


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Each of the stones on Aaron’s breastplate reveals an aspect of the divine nature, our new nature in Christ (2 Pet. 1:4). “Manasseh” means “who makes to forget, causing forgetfulness.” Jesus Christ died on the cross to take away sin (Jn. 1:29; Rev. 1:5). Every Christian can testify of Him, “He hath made me forget all my toil, and all my father’s house” (Gen. 41:51). In Jesus Christ, we have a new life, a new heart, a new tongue, a new mind. His is the blood of the New Testament, shed for many for the remission of sins (Matt. 26:28). Jesus has baptized us with the Holy Ghost, which Luke described as “cloven tongues like as of fire” (see Matt. 3:11; Acts 1:5; 2:1-4; 11:15).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Paul encouraged, “Forgetting those things which are behind,” we “press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus” (Phil. 3:13-14). If any man is in Christ, he is a new creation; old things are passed away, and all things are become new (2 Cor. 5:17). We are the Bride of Christ; our heavenly Husband has caused us to forget our own people and our father’s (Adam’s) house (Psa. 45:10; Eph. 5:31-32). The Christian has been buried with Christ in baptism, rising to walk in newness of life (Rom. 6:4; 7:6). Like precious metal that is being forged, our growth in grace is a progressive transformation, the renewing of our minds, the ongoing removal of the consciousness of evil (Rom. 12:1-2; Heb. 10:22).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 48:1-20; Deut. 4:9, 23, 31; 6:12; 8:11, 14, 19; 9:7; 25:19; Josh. 13:29-31; 17:1-18; Psa. 60:7; 88:12; 103:2; 119:16, 83, 93, 109, 141, 153, 176; Isa. 54:4, 12; Ezek. 27:16; 48:4-5; Mk. 16:17; Jn. 13:34; 1 Cor. 5:7; 11:25; 2 Cor. 3:6; Gal. 6:15; Eph. 2:15; 4:24; Heb. 6:10; 8:8, 13; 9:15; 10:20; 12:24; Jas. 1:24; Rev. 2:17; 3:12; 5:9; 14:3; 21:1-5.

19. AHAB

PRIMARY MEANING: Political Babylon.

KEY SCRIPTURES: 1 Kg. 16:29-33; 21:17-29; Rev. 17:1-7.

BASIC INFORMATION: Ahab, son of Omri, was the seventh king of Israel, reigning in Samaria for 22 years. “Ahab” is from the Hebrew “‘Ach’ab” (Strong’s #256) and means “brother (friend) of his father.” Taken from “‘ach” (brother) and “‘ab” (father), “Ahab” has also been translated as “father’s brother, uncle.” Ahab’s wife was Jezebel, the wicked daughter of Ethbaal, king of the Sidonians. This evil king destroyed Jehovah’s altars, killed His prophets, and built a temple to Baal. His father’s name, “Omri,” means “to heap blows, chastise” (Ahab may have been an abused child). Positively, he was a capable leader and an avid builder, including his “ivory house.” Ahab was the first king of Israel to establish peaceful relations with Judah, the southern kingdom. The prophet Elijah stood in open opposition to King Ahab throughout his administration.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: As Elijah was the constant righteous foe of Ahab and Jezebel, so Jesus Christ stands against all moral and national evil. Like ELijah, the great man of prayer (Jas. 5:16-18), Jesus has become our great High Priest who ever lives to make intercession for His people (Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25). At his ascension, Elijah’s mantle fell upon Elisha, his successor (2 Kg. 2)–following Jesus’ ascension, the anointing of His Spirit fell upon the Church (see Lk. 24:49; Acts 2:1-4; 10:38; Gal. 4:6).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: In the person of John the Baptist, an Elijah ministry of repentance and restoration preceded Jesus’ first coming (Mal. 4:5-6; Matt. 17:9-13). Prior to Jesus’ second coming, there will arise a prophetic people in the earth in the spirit and power of Elijah. Jesus prophesied, “Elias truly shall first come, and restore all things” (Matt. 17:11; Acts 3:19-21). This glorious Church must contend with the spirit of Ahab and Jezebel–political and religious Babylon–the woman riding the beast (Rev. 17:1-7). Ultimately, the kingdoms of this world will become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of His Christ (Rev. 11:15).


FURTHER STUDY: See 1 Kg. 17:1; 18:1, 17-18; 19:1-3; 20:1; 21:1, 15-29; 22:39-40; 2 Kg. 10:1, 10-17; 21:13; 2 Chron. 18:1; Psa. 2:1-12; 46:6; 75:6-7; 83:4-8; 110:5; Ezek. 11:2; Dan. 2:31-45; Joel 3:9-16; Mic. 6:16; Matt. 28:18; Rom. 13:1; Rev. 11:15; 17:12-14.



20. AI

PRIMARY MEANING: The chaotic ruin of sin and the world.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 12:8; 13:3; Josh. 7:2-3; 8:1-2; 1 Jn. 2:15-17.

BASIC INFORMATION: Ai was a Canaanite city of Palestine east of Bethel. “Ai” is from the Hebrew “‘Ay” (Strong’s #5857) and means “a ruin (as if overturned).” Translated as “heap” in the King James Version, “Ai” can also mean “a heap of rubbish.” Many years before Joshua’s conquest of this city, Abraham pitched his tent at Ai before journeying down to Egypt.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: The names “Joshua” and “Jesus” are synonymous and mean “Jehovah is salvation.” Jesus Christ is the heavenly Joshua, the Savior who conquered sin and overcame the world, the flesh, and the devil–“the king of Ai” (Josh. 12:9; Matt. 1:21; Jn. 19:30). He is the One who is building His Church, who will raise up the Tabernacle of David that is fallen, close up its breaches, and raise up its ruins (Amos 9:11; Matt. 16:18; Acts 15:16). Jesus has redeemed mankind from the destruction and devastation of the curse (Gen. 3:15; Gal. 3:13-14).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Christians are the seed of Abraham, the famous patriarch who left idolatrous Ur of the Chaldees and headed west toward the promised land (Gal. 3:29). Upon his arrival, “Bethel” (house of God) was before him and “Ai” lay behind him (to the east). Prior to our salvation, our ruined lives were steeped in the rubbish of sin (Eph. 2:1-3; 1 Jn. 2:15-17). We have built an altar of worship, forgetting those things which are behind, forever conquered by Christ (Rom. 12:1-2; Phil. 3:12-14). Our sinful lives are buried in the desolate ashes of Ai, covered by God’s mercy and grace (Josh. 8:28; Psa. 32:1-2).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 12:1-3; 2 Chron. 28:23; Psa. 32:1; 45:10; 68:13; 85:2; 89:40; 91:14; 140:7; Prov. 24:22; 26:28; Isa. 10:28; 25:2; Ezek. 27:27; Lk. 6:49; 9:62; 11:22; Jn. 16:33; Rom. 4:7; 6:1-14; Eph. 1:20-23; Col. 2:11-12.



PRIMARY MEANING: The perfume of worship.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 22:5; Matt. 26:6-13; Mk. 14:3-9; Lk. 7:36-50; Jn. 4:23-24.

BASIC INFORMATION: Alabaster is a fine textured variety of massive gypsum (sulfate of lime). “Alabaster” is from the Greek “alabastron” (Strong’s #211) which means “the name of a stone; properly an ‘alabaster’ box, (by extension) a perfume vase (of any material).” The breaking of the alabaster refers to its seal, not the box itself. Alabaster stone is very soft, thus good for carving. The color is usually white, but may be gray, yellow, or red. Many articles were fashioned from this stone, including vases, jars, saucers, bowls, lamps, and statues. The pouring forth of the alabaster’s precious contents pictures true worship. The Hebrew word for “worship” means “to depress, prostrate (in homage); bow down.” The Greek “proskuneo” (Strong’s #4352) means “to kiss, like a dog licking his master’s hand; to crouch to, prostrate oneself in homage (do reverence to, adore).”


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: When Jesus was at Bethany in the house of Simon the leper, there came a woman with an alabaster box of precious spikenard. She opened the box and poured it on His head (Mk. 14:3). Jesus Himself explained, “She is come beforehand to anoint My body to the burying…Wheresoever this gospel shall be preached throughout the whole world, this also that she hath done shall be spoken of for a memorial of her” (Matt. 26:6-13; Mk. 14:8-9). Jesus Christ was Heaven’s alabaster Box sealed by the Father (Jn. 6:27). On the cross, He was broken and spilled out. At His resurrection, He broke the seal (Matt. 27:66). In His eternal triumph, the Lion of the tribe of Judah prevailed to break and loose the seals (Rev. 5:5). Worthy is the Lamb who is to be worshipped (Rev. 5:9-14)!


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Luke’s similar account reveals the essence of true worship Lk. 7:36-50). Jesus’ ensuing lesson to Simon revealed that those who love Him most are those to whom He forgave most–“to whom little is forgiven, the same loveth little” (Lk. 7:42-43, 47). The essence of true worship is sacrifice (Gen. 22:5; Rom. 12:1-2). Moses said that we are to “worship no other god: for the Lord, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God” (Ex. 34:14). The Psalmist affirmed, “O come, let us worship and bow down: let us kneel before the LORD our maker” (Psa. 95:6). There are three kinds of “worship” in the New Testament that are not acceptable to God:


1. Vain worship (Matt. 15:7-9).

2. Ignorant worship (Acts 17:22-28).

3. Will worship (Col. 2:18-23).


The perfect Worshiper told us that “God is a Spirit: and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit (from His heart) and in truth (according to the Word of God)” (Jn. 4:23-24).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 24:26, 48, 52; Ex. 4:31; 12:27; 24:1; 32:8; 33:10; 34:8; Josh. 5:14; Judg. 7:15; 1 Sam. 1:19, 28; 1 Chron. 29:20; 2 Chron. 7:3; 20:18; 29:28-30; Neh. 9:3-6; Psa. 22:27; 29:2; 96:9; 99:5, 9; Song 1:12; 4:13-14; Isa. 66:23; Zech. 14:16-17; Matt. 2:2; 4:10; 28:9, 17; Mk. 5:6; Lk. 24:52; Jn. 12:3; 1 Cor. 14:25; Heb. 1:6; 11:21; Rev. 4:10; 5:14; 7:11; 11:1, 16; 14:7; 15:4; 19:4, 10; 22:8-9.



PRIMARY MEANING: God’s workmanship; pillars.

KEY SCRIPTURES: 1 Kg. 10:11-12; 2 Chron. 2:8-9; 9:10-11; Eph. 2:10; Rev. 3:12.

BASIC INFORMATION: The algum or almug is a large leguminous tree native to India and Ceylon. “Algum” is from the Hebrew “‘alguwmmiym” (Strong’s #418) which means “sticks of algum wood.” “Almug” is from the Hebrew “‘almuggiym” (Strong’s #484) which means “almug (probably sandle-wood) sticks.” Both words are plural. The algum tree is now known as the Grecian juniper, which reaches a height of 65 feet and is pyramidal in shape. Considered to be the red sandlewood, its blossoms were pea-like, and its very heavy wood was hard and fine grained, dark (black) outside, and ruby red within. It was highly scented, making it resistant to insects. Solomon ordered the algum wood from Ophir and Lebanon. This wood–marked by strength, beauty, and long life–was well suited for making musical instruments, cabinet work, and pillars for the Temple.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the Tree of Life, the Temple for God the Father, the Stone set for a pillar (Gen. 2:9; 3:22-24; 28:22). Solomon described our Bridegroom, “His legs are as pillars of marble, set upon sockets of fine gold: His countenance is as Lebanon, excellent as the cedars” (Song 5:15). The Church, the House that He builds, is wonderfully great (2 Chron. 2:8-9; Matt. 16:18). “And the king made of the algum trees terraces to the house of the LORD, and to the king’s palace” (2 Chron. 9:11). The word for “terraces” is “mecillah” (Strong’s #4546) and means “a thoroughfare (as turnpiked), viaduct, staircase.” It is translated in the King James Version as “causeway, course, highway, path, terrace.” Its root “cahal” means “to mound up; to exalt.” Jesus Christ is the Way, the Standard for the people, the preeminent One (Isa. 62:10; Jn. 14:6). Paul exclaimed, “Wherefore God hath highly exalted Him, and given Him a name which is above every name” (Phil. 2:9).


APPLIED TO THE BELIEVER: The apostle John declared that overcomers were like pillars in the temple of God upon whom was written His new name (Rev. 3:12). Our King has made of the almug trees pillars for the house of the Lord (1 Kg. 10:12)–His Church is the pillar and ground of the truth (1 Tim. 3:15). We are His workmanship, created in Christ Jesus unto good works, which God foreordained (Eph. 2:10). We have been created for His pleasure, to praise Him with psalteries and harps (1 Kg. 10:12; Rev. 4:11). In the Song of Songs, “King Solomon made himself a chariot of the wood of Lebanon…the midst thereof being paved with love” (2 Chron. 2:8; Song 2:4; 3:9-10).


FURTHER STUDY: See Ex. 31:3-5; 35:30-35; 1 Kg. 7:16; 2 Kg. 16:10; 1 Chron. 28:21; 2 Chron. 3:15-17; Prov. 3:18; 9:1; 11:30; 13:12; 15:4; 16:17; Isa. 11:16; 35:8-10; 40:3; 49:11; Jer. 31:21; Ezek. 28:13; Joel 2:8; Gal. 2:9; Eph. 1:20-23; Heb. 2:9; Rev. 2:7; 10:1.




PRIMARY MEANING: Firstfruits, fruitfulness, resurrection life.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Ex. 25:33; Num. 17:8; Heb. 7:11-16; 9:4; Jn. 11:25; 1 Cor. 15:20.

BASIC INFORMATION: The almond was a large tree native to Asia and North Africa resembling the peach tree in both size (12-14 feet) and fruit. The flowers are pink and arranged mostly in pairs. The covering of the fruit is downy and succulent, enclosing the hard shell which contains the kernel for which the tree is chiefly valued. The nuts were used for making oil used in the home and as medicine. “Almond” is from the Hebrew “shaqed” (Strong’s #8247) which means “the almond (tree or nut; as being the earliest in bloom).” Its root “shaqad” (Strong’s #8245) means “to be alert; sleepless; hence to be on the lookout.” Also translated as “awakening,” the almond was known as the “hastener,” an allusion to this blossom which is first to bloom in the spring. The almond’s pinkish-white blossoms always appear before its leaves. Aaron’s rod that budded was an almond twig. The decorations on the golden lampstand in the Mosaic Tabernacle were modeled after the almond blossom (each set of the knop or bud, flower, and bowl showed the three stages of the almond’s growth).


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the Firstfruits of them that slept, the Resurrection and the life (Jn. 11:25; 1 Cor. 15:20). The firstborn Son among many brethren, the elect Servant of Jehovah, was destined to inherit all things (Isa. 42:1-5; Rom. 8:29; Heb. 1:1-2). Aaron’s chosen priesthood prefigured the New Testament “royal priesthood” of Jesus Christ after the order of Melchisedec (see Num. 17:5-10; Psa. 110:1-4; Heb. 6:20; 9:4; 1 Pet. 2:9). This eternal, immutable priesthood is governed and energized by “the power of an endless life”–the resurrection life of the Son of God (Heb. 7:16). This divine life was revealed in the Golden Candlestick (lampstand) of Moses’ Tabernacle. The picture there is two-fold: Jesus is the “Light of the world” (Jn. 8:12), and He is the true or genuine “Vine”–the Tree of life (Jn. 15:1-5; Rev. 22:2). The nine sets of ornaments (nine almond plants) on each side of the golden Lampstand display the light (nature) and life (ministry) of Jesus Christ as the nine fruit and nine gifts of the Spirit (1 Cor. 12:8-10; Gal. 5:22-23). The seven lamps further indicate the “seven spirits of God” (enumerated in Isa. 11:1-2), the full anointing that rested upon Jesus Christ “without measure” (see Jn. 3:34; Rev. 1:4; 3:1; 4:5; 5:6).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Jesus is the “true Vine” and we are the “branches” (Jn. 15:1-5). The Church is the Candlestick, “the light of the world” (Matt. 5:13-16; Rev. 1:20). As the bowls of the Lampstand were filled with oil, so we have been filled with the Holy Spirit (see Acts 1:5; Gal. 4:6; Eph. 5:17-18; Col. 1:27). The light (nature) and life (ministry) of Jesus flows through His people, respectively manifested as the fruit and gifts of the Spirit (1 Cor. 12:8-10; Gal. 5:22-23). The many-membered Body of Christ, the glorious Church, is the corporate “Man whose name is the branch” (see Isa. 4:2; 11:1; Jer. 23:5; 33:15; Zech. 3:8; 6:12-13). The same anointing that rested upon the Vine shall flow through His branches to the ends of the earth (Psa. 133; Rev. 5:6).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 43:11; Ex. 25:31-40; Num. 17:1-13; Job 14:9; Psa. 27:1; 36:9; 80:15; 119:105, 130; 132:17; Prov. 4:18; 11:28; Eccl. 12:5; Isa. 27:6; Jer. 1:11-12; Eph. 5:8, 14; Phil. 2:15; Jas. 1:18; Heb. 5-7; 1 Jn. 1:5-7; Rev. 2:26-28; 12:1-5; 14:1-5.




PRIMARY MEANING: The cross, the crucified life.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Psa. 45:8; Prov. 7:17; Song 4:14; Rom. 6:6; Gal. 2:20.

BASIC INFORMATION: Aloes are two plants, one a tree and the other a flower. “Aloes” is from the Hebrew “‘ahaliym” (Strong’s #174) which means “aloe wood (sticks).” The aloes came from a large tree known as “eaglewood,” which sometimes grew to a height of 120 feet and 12 feet in girth. The wood of the aloe tree is fragrant and highly valued for perfume and incense. The Greek word is a transliteration of “aloe” (Strong’s #250) and means “aloes (the gum).” The soft, bitter wood of this aromatic tree was used by Orientals for the purposes of fumigation and embalming. The aloes brought by Nicodemus to wrap the body of Jesus were probably the true aloes of the lily family, a beautiful plant with thick, fleshy leaves and red flowers.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the Perfume of Heaven, the true Vine which the Father has planted in the earth (Num. 24:6; Jn. 15:1-5). All the garments of the heavenly Bridegroom “smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia, out of the ivory palaces” (Psa. 45:8). Ivory is a symbol of the pain the Savior endured, and each of these sweet spices reveal the One who has given Himself for us as an offering and sacrifice to God for a sweet-smelling savor (Eph. 5:2). John noted, “And there came also Nicodemus, which at the first came to Jesus by night, and brought a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about an hundred pound weight. Then took they the body of Jesus, and wound it in linen clothes with the spices” (Jn. 19:39-40).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: The believer has been crucified with Christ (Rom. 6:6; Gal. 2:20). We are to live our lives by the faith of the Son of God, who loved us and gave Himself for us. This reality of the crucified life cannot be imitated by cheap religion (Prov. 7:17). “Aloes” is one of the nine fragrances in the garden of the Bride of Christ (Song. 4:14), pointing to the “fruit of the Spirit,” the nature of Jesus (Gal. 5:22-24). The Body of Christ has been wrapped in righteousness and anointed with the desire to be crucified with Him (Jn. 19:40; Rev. 19:8).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 43:11; Ex. 25:6; 30:23, 34; 1 Kg. 10:2, 10, 25; 1 Chron. 9:29-30; 2 Chron. 16:14; 32:27; Song 4:10, 16; 5:13; 6:2; 8:14; Mk. 16:1; Lk. 23:56; 24:1; 1 Cor. 1:13. 23; 2:2, 8; 2 Cor. 13:4; Gal. 3:1; 6:14; Phil. 3:9-11.



PRIMARY MEANING: The place of sacrifice, the cross.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 8:20; 12:7-8; Ex. 27:1-8; Rom. 12:1-2; Heb. 13:10.

BASIC INFORMATION: The altar was a table, platform, or elevated place on which a priest offered sacrifices to God. “Altar” is from the Hebrew “mizbeach” (Strong’s #4196); its root “zabach” means “to slaughter an animal (usually in sacrifice).” The Greek word for “altar” is “thusiasterion” (Strong’s #2379) and means “a place of sacrifice.” The first altar was built by Noah after the Flood. The next several altars mentioned were reared up by the patriarches Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. During the days of Moses’ Tabernacle, two priestly altars assumed important roles: the altar of burnt offering and the altar of incense. Later, David erected an altar on a threshing floor of natural stone which became the building site for Solomon’s glorious Temple.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is our “Altar” (Heb. 13:10). The altars of both Testaments were clothed in purple (Num. 4:13; Mk. 15:17; Jn. 19:2)! Paul declared that Christ our passover has been sacrificed for us (1 Cor. 5:7). Jesus is the consummate fulfillment of all Old Testament offerings (Jn. 19:30; Heb. 9:26; 10:5-12). His blood is “better blood” than that of bulls and goats which covered sin annually–the blood of Jesus removed the sin of the world (Jn. 1:29; Heb. 12:24). The Brazen Altar of Moses’ Tabernacle finds its complete fulfillment in His cross (Ex. 27:1-8). Its length and breadth of five cubits point to the five wounds of Jesus at Calvary (hands, feet, side). Its height of three cubits reveals the Godhead in redemption: the Father gave the sacrifice, the Son was the sacrifice, and the Holy Spirit reveals the sacrifice. The brass of the altar typifies judgment upon sin (Rev. 16:7), and its horns reveal the power of the Lamb’s blood (Lk. 1:68-69; Jn. 1:29). The Golden Altar reveals Jesus Christ our great High Priest who ever lives to make intercession for us (Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: The way of life in Christ is the way of the cross–the life of sacrifice and self-denial (Jn. 14:6). Believers have been crucified with Christ (Rom. 6:6; Gal. 2:20). Man’s only approach to God is by way of blood sacrifice (Acts 4:12; Heb. 9:22; 1 Pet. 1:18-19). The Golden Altar of incense reveals prayer, praise, and worship in the life of the Christian (Psa. 141:2; Heb. 13:15; Rev. 8:3). We are to present our bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto God, which is our reasonable service (Rom. 12:1-2). Jesus warned, “And whosoever doth not bear his cross, and come after Me, cannot be My disciple” (Lk. 14:27).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 13:4; 22:9; 26:25; 33:20; 35:1-3; Ex. 17:15; 20:24-26; 27:1-8; 28:43; 29:36; 30:1-10; 40:6; Lev. 1:5; 2 Sam. 24:15-25; 1 Kg. 1:50-51; 2:28; Ezra 3:1-3; Neh. 10:34; Psa. 26:6; 43:4; 51:19; 84:3; 118:27; Isa. 6:6;


Joel 1:13; 2:17; Mal. 1:7, 10; 2:13; Matt. 5:23-24; 23:19; Lk. 1:11; 11:51; Acts 17:23; 1 Cor. 9:13; 10:18; Rev. 11:11.





KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 36:12, 16; Ex. 17:8-16; Rom. 8:1-6; Gal. 5:17.

BASIC INFORMATION: Amalek, an Edomite chieftain, was the grandson of Esau. The Amalekites were an ancient wandering tribe whose main territory was in the Sinai peninsula and the southern Negev. “Amalek,” from the Hebrew “‘Amaleq” (Strong’s #6002) which means “a descendant of Esau,” has also been translated as “warlike, dweller in the vale, valley dweller.” Throughout the Old Testament the Amalekites were bitter enemies of Israel, first mentioned in the time of Abraham. Joshua later defeated them in the battle at Rephidim. In the time of the judges, the Amalekites and Midianites were defeated by Gideon’s army. The Amalekites continued to raid Israel in the days of Saul and David. During Hezekiah’s reign, men from the tribe of Simeon defeated the Amalekites and dispossessed them.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ overcame the world, the flesh, and the devil (Jn. 14:30; 16:33; Col. 2;15). As David defeated the Amalekites and recovered all (1 Sam. 30:18; 2 Sam. 8;12; 1 Chron. 18:11), Jesus was the sinless, overcoming One who secured every covenantal promise (Rom. 15:8; Heb. 4:15). Typified as well by the prophet Moses, the mediator of the law (Jn. 1:17; Acts 3:18-24; Gal. 3:19), Jesus Christ was lifted up on the cross and prevailed over the flesh (Ex. 17:11). He is “Jehovah-Nissi”–the Lord is our banner, flag, standard, and ensign (Ex. 17:15).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Like the Pattern Son, we are to get the victory over the flesh (Rom. 8:1-6; Gal. 5:17). We have been raised up and made to sit together with Him in the heavenlies, not to dwell in the valley (Eph. 2:6). God’s people have had war with Amalek from generation to generation (Ex. 17:16; Rom. 7:23). The secret of our victory is found “at the top of the hill”–Mount Calvary (Ex. 17:10). We are to exalt the Lord, to lift up the hands of our heavenly Moses, until Amalek is defeated with the edge of the sword, the Word of God (Ex. 17:11-13; Eph. 6:17; Heb. 4:12).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 14:7; Num. 13:29; 14:25; 43-45; 24:20; Deut. 25:17-19; Judg. 6:3, 33; 7:12-22; 1 Sam. 14:48; 15:1-33; 28:18; 30:1-20; 2 Sam. 1:1-17; 8:12; 1 Chron. 1:36; 4:39-43; 18:11; Psa. 83:7; Gal. 5:12-21.



PRIMARY MEANING: The brilliance of the glory of God.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Ezek. 1:4, 27; 8:2; Jn. 1:14; 2 Cor. 4:6; Heb. 1:3.

BASIC INFORMATION: Amber is fossilized resin formed from the sap of various trees. “Amber” is from the Hebrew “chashmal” (Strong’s #2830) which is of uncertain derivation, “probably bronze or polished spectrum metal.” “Chasmal” is rendered as “elektron” in the Septuagint, the Greek Old Testament, and is akin to the Hebrew “choshen” (Strong’s #2833), the word translated as “breastplate,” which means “to contain or sparkle; perhaps a pocket (as holding the Urim and Thummim).” Amber is yellowish-orange and can be polished to a high gloss.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the brightness of the glory of God the Father, like a fire enfolding itself (Ezek. 1:4; Jn. 5:26; Heb. 1:3). John explained, “The Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld His glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father)” (Jn. 1:14). Ezekiel saw four living creatures emerge from the midst of God’s amber-colored glory–they had the appearance of a Man, and every one had four faces (Ezek. 1:4-5). The glory of God is revealed in the face of Jesus Christ (2 Cor. 4:6)–the Man of Ezekiel’s vision with four faces: Matthew saw Him as the “lion,” the king; Mark pictured Him as the “ox,” the servant of Jehovah; Doctor Luke saw Jesus as the “man,” the Son of man; and John’s gospel is a revelation of the “eagle,” the Son of God (Ezek. 1:10). Ezekiel saw the glory of God in the wind, the cloud, and the fire, prefiguring the glorious Spirit of the ascended Son poured out on the Day of Pentecost (Acts 1:5; 2:1-4, 33-36; Gal. 4:6). His glory shall be revealed in both Heaven, “His loins even upward,” and earth, “His loins even downward” (Ezek. 1:27; 8:2; Matt. 6:10; Rev. 21;1-11).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Christians are members of His glorious Church (Eph. 5:27). We have heard the glorious gospel, and Christ in us is the hope of glory (2 Cor. 4:4; Col. 1:27). Believers have been baptized in the Holy Ghost with the appearance of fire (Ezek. 1:27; Matt. 3:11; Acts 2:3). The apostle cried, “But we all, with open face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are changed into the same image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord” (2 Cor. 3:18). God’s people are strengthened with might by His Spirit in the inner man according to the riches of His glory (Eph. 3:16). When He shall appear, we shall appear with Him in glory (Col. 3:4).


FURTHER STUDY: See Ex. 16:7, 10; 24:16-17; 40:34-35; Lev. 9:6, 23; Num. 14:10, 21; 16:19, 42; 20:6; 1 Kg. 8:11; 2 Chron. 5:14; 7:1-3; Psa. 104:31; 138:5; Isa. 6:3; 60:2; Ezek. 43:4-5; 44:4; Hab. 2:14; Matt. 19:28; Lk. 2:9; 24:26; Acts 7:2, 55; Rom. 3:23; 5:2; 8:18; 1 Cor. 2:8; Phil. 2:11; 1 Tim. 1:17; 3:16; Heb. 2:9; 1 Pet. 1:8; 4:14; Rev. 4:9-11.



28. AMEN

PRIMARY MEANING: Oath, covenant; faith, faithfulness.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Psa. 89; Isa. 65:16; 2 Cor. 1:19-20; Rev. 3:14.

BASIC INFORMATION: “Amen” is a solemn word by which a person confirms a statement, oath, or covenant, or affirms an address, psalm, or prayer. “Amen” is transliterated from the Hebrew “‘amen” (Strong’s #543) and means “sure; abstract, faithfulness; truly.” Translated in the King James Version as “Amen, so be it, truth,” it comes from the root “‘aman” (Strong’s #539) which means “to build up or support; to foster as a parent or nurse; figuratively to render (or be) firm or faithful, to trust or believe, to be permanent or quiet; morally to be true or certain; to go to the right hand”–this is the Old Testament word for “faith” (believe, trust). In the New Testament, “amen” is transliterated from the Greek “amen” (Strong’s #281) and means “firm, (figuratively) trustworthy; adverbially, surely (so be it).” “Amen” is also translated in the King James Version as “verily” (“verily, verily” is used in John’s Gospel 25 times).


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is “the Amen, the faithful and true witness” (Rev. 3:14), the God of truth, literally, “the God of Amen” (Isa. 65:16; 1 Pet. 4:19). He is our merciful and faithful High Priest (Heb. 2:17). Paul assured us, “For all the promises of God in Him are yea, and in Him Amen, unto the glory of God” (2 Cor. 1:20; 1 Thess. 5:24). He is, literally, “the Amen God” who keeps covenant and mercy with His children (Deut. 7:9; 1 Cor. 1:9). God’s side of covenant is faithfulness; man’s side of covenant is obedience. Jesus said, “I am he that liveth, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death” (Eph. 3:21; 1 Tim. 1:17; Rev. 1:18).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We have been called by the Lord to be a covenant people, knowing that without faith, it is impossible to please Him (Heb. 11:6). Believers respond to His covenantal embrace by lifting up their hands in worship (Neh. 8:6). He is to make us perfect in every good work to do His will, working in us that which is wellpleasing in His sight (Heb. 13:21). God is not looking for talent, but availability and faithfulness (1 Cor. 4:2; Gal. 5:22; 2 Tim. 2:2). The Church is to walk in unshakeable peace–unbreakable relationships.




FURTHER STUDY: See Deut. 27:15-26; 1 Chron. 16:36; Psa. 41:13; 72:19; 89:52; Isa. 49:7; Jer. 11:5; 28:6; Matt. 6:13; 28:20; Mk. 16:20; Lk. 24:53; Jn. 21:25; Rom. 1:25; 9:5; 11:36; 15:33; 16:20; 1 Cor. 14:16; 16:24; Gal. 6:18; Eph. 6:24; Phil. 4:20; 1 Tim. 6:16; 2 Tim. 4:18; Heb. 6:16-20; 1 Pet. 4:11; 2 Pet. 3:18; 1 Jn. 5:21; Rev. 1:6-7; 22:20-21.




PRIMARY MEANING: Son of the right hand, exaltation.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 35:18; Ex. 28:19; 39:12; Rev. 3:21; 21:20.

BASIC INFORMATION: Amethyst is a transparent variety of quartz whose color varied from light to deep violet.


“Amethyst” is from the Hebrew “‘achlamah” (Strong’s #306) which means “dream-stone; a gem, probably the amethyst.” Its root “chalam” (Strong’s #2492) means “to bind firmly, to be (make) plump; also (through the figurative sense of dumbness) to dream.” The Greek word for “amethyst” is “amethustos” and means “not drunken.” Amethyst was the third stone in the third row of Aaron’s breastplate–on this ninth stone was engraven the name of the tribe of Benjamin. The amethyst was also included in the foundation of the New Jerusalem.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Each of the stones on Aaron’s breastplate reveal an aspect of His divine nature, our new nature in Christ (2 Pet. 1:4). “Benjamin” means “son of the right hand,” denoting a place of honor and authority. Mother earth named Jesus “Benoni” (son of sorrow), but the heavenly Father named Him “Benjamin” (Gen. 35:18). Jesus has been exalted to the right hand of God to make intercession for us (Rom. 8:34; Eph. 1:20-23). He purged our sins and sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high, from henceforth expecting until His enemies are made His footstool (Heb. 1:3-4; 10:13). Angels and principalities have been made subject unto Him (1 Pet. 3:22).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We have been raised up together, and made to sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus (Eph. 1:3; 2:6). The believer is to seek those things which are above, where Christ sits enthroned on the right hand of God (Col. 3:1). “To him that overcometh” is granted “the right” to sit with Him (Prov. 15:33; Rev. 3:21). Joseph, who was sold by his brethren, is a type of Jesus Christ, the favored Son. We are, like Benjamin, are called to be His full brothers (Rom. 8:29; Heb. 2:6-13). We sing a new song because His right hand and holy arm has gotten Him the victory (Psa. 98:1). The exalted Christ has shared His glory and authority with His Church.


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 48:13-18; Ex. 15:6; Lev. 8:13; Deut. 33:2; 1 Sam. 2:10; 1 Kg. 2:19; 1 Chron. 6:39; Psa. 16:8, 11; 18:35; 20:6; 73:23; 75:6; 80:15; 89:13, 25; 110:1-5; 118:5-6; Prov. 3:35; Song 2:6; Hab. 2:16; Lk. 14:11; Rom. 8:17, 30; Phil. 2:9; Heb. 1:13; 8:1; 12:2; 1 Pet. 5:5-6.




PRIMARY MEANING: Mixture, compromise.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 19:30-38; Judg. 11-12; Mk. 7:13; 2 Cor. 6:14-7:1.

BASIC INFORMATION: Ammon is the name of a man and an ancient kingdom in the Old Testament. “Ammon” is from the Hebrew “‘Ammown” (Strong’s #5983) which means “tribal, inbred.” “Ammon” has also been translated as “a great people, an extensive people, a fellow countryman.” Ammon was the son of Lot by his younger daughter. The Ammonites dwelled north and east of Moab, and their capital city was Rabbah. Molech was the god of the Ammonites, whose worship was accompanied by human sacrifice. During the days of the Exodus, the Israelites were instructed by God not to associate with the Ammonites. In the times of the judges, Eglon, king of Moab, enlisted the aid of the Ammonites. During the monarchy,Saul saved Jabesh Gilead from Nahash, the Ammonite king. These enemies of God’s people were destroyed in the days of King Jehoshaphat.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is “the Truth” (Jn. 14:6; 17:17). In Him is light, no darkness at all (1 Jn. 1:5). Like the judge Jephthah who defeated the Ammonites, the Captain of our salvation was rejected by His brethren (Judg. 11:1-6; Jn. 1:11; Heb. 2:10). The greater Son of David conquered the mixture of this world (2 Sam. 8:12; Jn. 16:33; 1 Jn. 2:15-17). Totally committed to do the Father’s will, Jesus did not compromise (Lk. 12:50). The living Word is pure (see Psa. 12:6; 119:140; Prov. 15:26; 30:5).


APPLIED TO THE BELIEVER: Ammon was the product of an incestuous relationship. The Christian is to keep himself pure and unspotted from the world (2 Cor. 6:14-7:1; Jas. 1:27). Molech has become a national deity in America–he is called “abortion.” Godly parents will not sacrifice their children to the gods of secular humanism (Deut. 6:4-9; Eph. 6:4). Spiritual Ammonites are vagabonds and wandering stars (Jude 1:11-13). A godly Christian will have roots, established in his home and local church (Psa. 68:6; 1 Cor. 12:18; Heb. 10:25). He will not mix truth with tradition (Lk. 9:62; Col. 2:8).


FURTHER STUDY: See Lev. 18:21; Deut. 2:19; 3:11; 23:3; Josh. 13:10, 25; Judg. 3:13; 2 Sam. 11:1-11; 12:12; 1 Kg. 11:7, 33; 2 Kg. 23:13; 2 Chron. 20:1-2; Neh. 13:23; Psa. 83:7; Jer. 9:26; 49:1-2; Ezek. 25:10; Amos 1:13-15; Zeph. 1:5; 2:8-9; Acts 7:43.





KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 10:15-16; Josh. 24:8; Amos 2:9-10; Job 41:34; 2 Cor. 10:3-6.

BASIC INFORMATION: The Amorites were one of the major tribes of Canaan. The Old Testament frequently uses “Amorites” to speak of Canaanites in general. “Amorite,” from the Hebrew “‘Emoriy” (Strong’s #567), means “prominence; a mountaineer,” and has also been translated as “dwellers of the summits, highlanders.” When Israel invaded Canaan under Joshua, the first Israelite victories came against the Amorite kings Sihon and Og, who ruled the promised land east of the Jordan River.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the New Testament “Joshua” who conquered leviathan, the king of pride (Job 41:34; Isa. 27:1). He came to earth as the “Servant of Jehovah” (Isa. 42:1-5; Mk. 10:45) and made Himself of no reputation, suffering the humility of the cross (Phil. 2:1-11). Jesus gladly submitted to His earthly parents, the law, and especially to His Father’s will (Matt. 5:17-20; Lk. 2:51-52; Heb. 10:6-10). Luke wrote, “In His humiliation His judgment was taken away” (Acts 8:32-33). The One who ascended up to fill all things descended first into the lower parts of the earth (Eph. 4:9-10).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: The Amorites “dwell in the mountains” of pride (Num. 13:29). The weapons of our warfare are mighty through God to the pulling down of strongholds, casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God (2 Cor. 10:3-6). The “five kings of the Amorites” (Josh. 10:5) point to the five natural senses, the source of man’s haughtiness. God hates a proud look (Prov. 6:16-17; Mk. 7:22). Like Jesus, we are called to overcome the pride of life and to put the devil, “king over all the children of pride,” under our feet (Job 41:34; Rom. 16:20; 1 Jn. 2:16).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 14:7; 15:16; Ex. 3:8; Deut. 1:27; Josh. 2:10; 5:1; Judg. 11:19-22; 1 Kg. 21:26; 2 Kg. 21:11; 2 Chron. 8:7; Ezra 9:1; Psa. 10:2-4; 31:20; 36:11; 59:12; 73:6; 135:11; 136:19; Prov. 8:13; 11:2; 13:10; 14:3; 16:18; 29:23; Ezek. 16:3, 45; Dan. 4:37; 5:20; Hos. 5:5; 7:10; Obad. 1:3; Zeph. 3:11; Zech. 11:3.


32. AMOS

PRIMARY MEANING: The Good Shepherd; the Burden-bearer.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Amos 1:1; 7:10-15; Isa. 53:4; Jn. 10:1-16.

BASIC INFORMATION: Amos was the famous shepherd-prophet who denounced the people of Israel the northern kingdom for their idol worship, corruption, and oppression of the poor. “Amos,” a derivative of the Hebrew root “‘amac” (Strong’s #6006), means “to load, impose a burden,” and has also been translated as “borne up, sustained, carried.” Amos was from Tekoa in Judah, about 10 miles south of Jerusalem. Israel had broken covenant to worship idols. Amos pleaded with the people to turn from their sin and to restore justice and righteousness in their dealings with others. Nothing is known about his later life or death.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the “Good Shepherd” who was made unto us righteousness (Jn. 10:11; 1 Cor. 1;30). He is Heaven’s “plumbline” set in the midst of His people (Amos 7:8; Jn. 1:1, 14). Jesus Christ the righteous is the divine measure, the criterion by which all men are judged (see Jn. 3:35; 5:22; Rom. 14:12; 1 Jn. 2:1). Jesus was not welcome among religious Pharisees and Sadducees–those who frequent “the king’s chapel” and “the king’s court” (Amos 7:13). Like Amos, He was a gatherer of sycomore fruit (Amos 7:14)–in the person of Zacchaeus (Lk. 19:1-10)! Jesus is the Burden-bearer who carried the load of the sin of the world, the One who bore our griefs and sorrows, once offered to bear the sins of many (Isa. 53:4; Jn. 1:29; Heb. 9:28).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Believers, made the righteousness of God in Christ (2 Cor. 5:21), have been apprehended to come to the measure of His fullness (Phil. 3:12-14; Eph. 4:13). God places a higher value on justice and righteousness than on temporal materialism, the things that money will buy–godliness with contentment is great gain (2 Cor. 4:17-18; 1 Tim. 6:6-10). The prophet cried, “Let judgment run down like waters, and righteousness as a mighty stream” (Amos 5:24). God uses ordinary men like Amos, who said, “I was no prophet, neither was I a prophet’s son; but I was an herdman, and a gatherer of sycomore fruit: and the Lord took me as I followed the flock” (Amos 7:14-15). Amos prophesied that God would restore His end-time Church, the Tabernacle of David (Amos 9:11; Matt. 16:18; Acts 15:16).


FURTHER STUDY: See Prov. 2:7, 20; 3:32; 10:16, 21-32; 11:8-10, 21-31; 12:1-12; Neh. 4:17; Psa. 68:9; Isa. 46:3; Amos 6:1; 9:11-15; Matt. 4:6; 12:30; Lk. 6:44; Jn. 4:36; Acts 9:15; Rom. 5:19; 15:1; Gal. 6:2, 5, 17; 1 Tim. 1:9; 2 Tim. 4:8; Jas. 5:16; 1 Pet. 3:12; Rev. 16:5-7; 19:2.



33. ANAK

PRIMARY MEANING: Principalities in heavenly places.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Num. 13:22-33; Josh. 15:6-14; Rom. 8:38; Eph. 3:10; 6:12.

BASIC INFORMATION: Anak was a son of Arba, who gave his name to Kirjath-arba, or Hebron. “Anak,” derived from the Hebrew “‘anaq” (Strong’s #6060), means “a necklace (as if strangling),” and is translated as “chain” in the King James Version. Its verb form means “to choke, to collar.” “Anak” has also been translated as “long-necked, giant.” Anak had three sons, whose descendants were a race of giants called the Anakim.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ, who came from the tribe of Judah (Heb. 7:14), is the heavenly “Joshua” and “Caleb” who spoiled principalities and powers, passing triumphantly through the heavens to be crowned and seated at the right hand of the Father (see Col. 2:15; Heb. 2:9; 4:14-16; 8:1-6). What once was “Kirjath-arba” (city of the giant) has become “Hebron” (united, joined together, friendship, brotherhood, company, league). Jesus stripped the devil of his power and established His Church–the redeemed community–in the blood of the New Covenant (Josh. 14:15; Heb. 2:14-18; 1 Jn. 3:8).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We were in bondage to the kingdom of darkness, strapped in the chains of sin (Eph. 2:1-3). Forgiven, cleansed, and set free by His blood, we have become new creatures in Christ Jesus (2 Cor. 5:17-21; Eph. 1:6-7). Jesus’ tribe and family has been given an incorruptible inheritance in the heavenlies (Eph. 1:3; 2:6; 1 Pet. 1:3-4). Unlike those who feared the Anakim and provoked the Lord (Num. 13:31-33; Heb. 3:7-19), we are called to be men of “another spirit” (Num. 14:24), to arise and say with Caleb, “Give me this mountain!” The Lord is with us, and we will drive out the giants (Josh. 14:12; Isa. 60:1; Mk. 16:15-20).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 6:4; Deut. 1:28; 2:10-11, 20-21; 3:11-13; 9;2; Josh. 11:21-22; 12:4; 13:12; 15:8; 17:15; 18:16; 21:11; Judg. 1:20; 1 Sam. 17; 2 Sam. 21:16-22; 1 Chron. 20:1-8; Job 16:14; Eph. 1:20-23; Col. 1:16; 2:10.




PRIMARY MEANING: Stability, security; hope.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Acts 27:29-30, 40; Heb. 6:19-20; 1 Pet. 1:3; 2 Pet. 1:19.

BASIC INFORMATION: An anchor is a heavy object on a ship cast overboard to hold the vessel in a particular place. “Anchor” is from the Greek “agkura” (Strong’s #45) which means “an “anchor” (as crooked). It is derived from “agkos” which means “a bend; an arm (as curved).” Compare the English word “ache.” Sometimes large stones were used to make anchors.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ, our living hope, is the Anchor of the soul, both sure and stedfast, having entered into that which is within the veil (Heb. 6:19-20; 1 Pet. 1:3). Jesus, the Arm of the Lord (Isa. 51:9; 53:1; Jn. 12:38), is “sure” (secure, safe) and cannot fail. The Surety of the New Testament is the “stedfast” (stable, firm) One. The root word for “stedfast” in Hebrews 6:19 is “basis”–Jesus, the Rock of ages, is the “everlasting foundation” (Prov. 10:25; Matt. 7:24-27; 1 Cor. 3:9-11). Paul added, “He is before all things, and by Him all things consist” and are held together (Col. 1:17). Jesus is in the boat, the Anchor in the midst of every storm (Matt. 8:23-27; 14:22-33; Lk. 8:24-25).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: The Word of God is sure, keeping us safely anchored during the storms of life. Acts 27 is a sweeping panorama of the end times. Four principles unlock its message to all men:


1. The wind is the Holy Spirit. The Hebrew “ruach” and the Greek “pneuma” mean “wind, spirit, breath” (Psa. 148:8).


2. The storm is the Day of the Lord, consistently pictured throughout the Book of Psalms and the Prophets (see Psa. 29; Isa. 60; Joel 2; Zeph. 1; Mal. 4)


3. The ship is a world system headed for the rocks (1 Jn. 2:15-17).


4. Paul is the overcoming Christian and apostolic Church who endures all things (Rev. 3:21; 21:7).


The blowing of the wind of God is predeterminately sovereign (Acts 27:1). Men have cast four anchors out of the stern, wishing for the day (Acts 27:29), but there is no stability in fleshly wisdom and strength. Luke wrote, “And when they had taken up the anchors, they committed themselves unto the sea” and wind (Acts 27:40; Heb. 3:14). Those who have been given a more sure word of prophecy need not fear (2 Pet. 1:19). We can confidently endure unto the end because our Anchor holds (Matt. 24:13; Heb. 10:39)!


FURTHER STUDY: See Psa. 55:22; 62:5-6; Isa. 28:16; Jer. 17:7-8; Zech. 4:9; Mk. 6:53; Lk. 6:48-49; Acts 11:23; 16:5; 20:24; Rom. 4:16; 1 Cor. 15:58; 2 Cor. 1:7; Phil. 3:1; Col. 1:23; 2:5; 2 Tim. 2:19; Heb. 2:2-4; 3:6; 6:1-3; 2 Pet. 1:10.



PRIMARY MEANING: The eternal person and throne of Christ.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Dan. 7:9, 13, 22; Heb. 1:10-12; 13:8; Rev. 1:8, 11.

BASIC MEANING: “Ancient of Days” is a name for God used by the prophet Daniel, who portrayed God on His throne, judging the great world empires. “Ancient” is from the Hebrew “‘attiyq” (Strong’s #6268) which means “venerable.” It is derived from “attiyq” (antique) and the primitive root “athaq” (to grow old). The Almighty is also called the “everlasting” God. This is the Hebrew word “‘olam” which means “concealed, time out of mind, remotest time, eternity, perpetuity.”


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus’ person and throne are from everlasting (Psa. 93:2; 102:24-27). He is “Alpha and Omega,” the beginning and the ending (Isa. 44:6; Rev. 1:8, 11; 21:6; 22:13). Born in Bethlehem’s manger, His goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting (Mic. 5:2; Matt. 2:5-6). Jesus is the same, and His years shall not fail (Heb. 1:10-12; 13:8). The “ways” of the One who is “the Way” are everlasting (Hab. 3:6; Jn. 14:6). His priesthood and kingship are immutable and eternal throughout the generations (Isa. 9:6-7; Lam. 5:19; Lk. 1:30-33). His dominion is an everlasting dominion (Dan. 4:34; Heb. 9:12). With Him is all wisdom (Job 12:12; Col. 2:3).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We worship the Savior and eternal King to whom is all honor and power everlasting (1 Tim. 1:17; 6:15-16). That eternal Life who was with the Father has been manifested unto us (Jn. 1:1-18; 11:25; 1 Jn. 1:1-2). Isaiah cried, “The high and lofty One that inhabiteth eternity” has given us everlasting life (Isa. 57:15; Jn. 3:16). Moses proclaimed the eternal God to be our Refuge, and underneath are His everlasting arms (Deut. 33:27). His glorious Church will be made an eternal excellency, a joy of many generations (Isa. 60:15). The Bible’s definition of “life eternal” is to know Him (Jn. 17:3).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 21:33; Deut. 33:15; Job 36:26; Psa. 9:7; 102:12; Prov. 22:28; Isa. 40:28; 46:10; 51:9; Jer. 18:15; Hab. 1:12; Rom. 1:20; 2:7; 5:21; 6:23; 16:26; 2 Cor. 4:17-18; 5:1; Eph. 3:11; Heb. 1:11; 5:9; 7:16; 9:14-15; 1 Pet. 5:10; 1 Jn. 5:11-13, 20.




PRIMARY MEANING: Jesus Christ in the Old Testament.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 16:7-13; Ex. 3:2-6; 1 Chron. 21:1-30; Mal. 3:1.

BASIC MEANING: The Angel of the Lord is a mysterious messenger of God in the Old Testament, sometimes described as the Lord Himself. This is called a Theophanie (an appearance of God) or Christophanie (appearance of the pre-incarnate Christ). “Angel” is from the Hebrew “mal’ak” (Strong’s #4397) which means “to dispatch as a deputy; a messenger, specifically, of God; an angel (also a prophet, priest, or teacher).” Called either the Angel of the “Lord” (Yahweh) or the Angel of “God” (Elohim), the phrase is always in the singular. The Angel of the Lord brought revelation, deliverance, and even destruction.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: The “Angel of the Lord” was the pre-incarnate Christ. As Heaven’s principal Messenger, He is the Prophet like unto Moses (Deut. 18:15; Acts 3:22-23), the Priest similar to Melchisedec (Heb. 6:20), and the Teacher come from God (Jn. 3:2). Jesus Christ is the “Messenger of the covenant,” the Word made flesh, sent from Heaven to reveal the Father (Mal. 3:1; Jn. 1:1-18). As the Logos of God, the faithful Messenger is the sum total of everything God wanted to say to man (Prov. 25:13; Jn. 1:1, 14; Heb. 8:1-2).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We are to consider the Apostle and High Priest of our confession, fully authorized to bear the name of the One who sent Him (Matt. 28:18-20; Heb. 3:1). Jesus is our Savior, Protector, and Judge (Jn. 5:22; Acts 4:12)–the One who guides us through the wilderness of spiritual adolescence to the land of promise (Prov. 3:5-6; Jn. 14:6; 16:13). He is the Messenger of the New Covenant who washed us from our sins in His own blood (Rev. 1:5). Believers are blessed to read the Book of Revelation, the unveiling of this mighty Angel (Rev. 1:3).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 22:11, 15; Num. 22:22-35; Judg. 2:1-4; 6:11-12, 21-22; 13:3, 13-21; 2 Sam. 24:16; 1 Kg. 19:7; 2 Kg. 1:3, 15; 19:35; Psa. 34:7; 35:5-6; Isa. 37:36; Hag. 1:13; Zech. 1:11-12; 3:1-6; 12:8; Mal. 2:7; Acts 7:30.



PRIMARY MEANING: That which is authorized, consecrated, set apart; divine glory, presence, equipping, and blessing.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Isa. 61:1-3; Lk. 4:17-21; Jn. 3:34; Acts 10:38; Gal. 4:6; Col. 1:27.

BASIC INFORMATION: To anoint is to consecrate and ordain a person or thing for a particular office, function, or service. “Anointing” is from the Hebrew “mishchah” (Strong’s #4888) which means “unction (the act); a consecratory gift.” Its root “mashach” (Strong’s #4886) means “to rub with oil, to anoint; by implication, to consecrate; also to paint; smear.” The phrase, “the Lord’s anointed,” referred especially to the king’s office. In the Old Testament, prophets, priests, and kings were anointed by pouring oil on their heads. The Hebrew term for Jesus as God’s anointed is “Messiah” (equivalent to “Christ” in the New Testament). The Greek words for “anointing” and “anoint” are “chrisma” and “chrio” (Strong’s #5545, 5548) and mean “to smear or rub with oil, to consecrate to an office or religious service.” In the New Testament, anointing was frequently used in connection with healing and the outpouring of the Holy Spirit.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is Prophet, Priest, and King–“the Lord’s anointed” (1 Sam. 16:6). Just as David was anointed three times–as exalted son (1 Sam. 16:13), head (2 Sam. 2:4), and king over all (2 Sam. 5:3)–so the greater Son of David fulfilled the type (Matt. 3:17; Eph. 1:22; Rev. 19:16). The Captain over the Lord’s inheritance (1 Sam. 10:1; Heb. 2:10) was anticipated by the Psalmist, “God hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows” (Psa. 45:7; Acts 10:38; Heb. 1:9). The anointing that rested upon Messiah was seven-fold, the Spirit in fullness (see Isa. 11:1-2; Jn. 3:34; Rev. 1:4; 3:1; 4:5; 5:6). In the synagogue at Nazareth, Jesus declared Himself to be earth’s Jubilee, “The Spirit of the Lord is upon Me, because He hath anointed Me…to preach the acceptable year of the Lord” (Isa. 61:1-3; Lk. 4:17-21).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We have been filled and anointed with the Holy Spirit (Eph. 5:17-18). Paul revealed that God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts (Gal. 4:6)–Christ in you, the hope of glory (Col. 1:27). The “Anointed One” within the believer is a prophet declaring God unto men, a priest bringing men unto God, and a king ruling in God’s name (2 Cor. 1:21-22; Rev. 1:6; 5:10). The Apostle John explained this unction from God, “The anointing which ye have received of Him abideth in you, and ye need not that any man teach you: but as the same anointing teacheth you of all things, and is truth, and is no lie, and even as it hath taught you, ye shall abide in Him” (1 Jn. 2:20, 27).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 31:13; Ex. 28:41; 29:7, 36; 30:26; 40:9-15; Lev. 8:10; Num. 7:1; 26:9-11; 2 Sam. 22:51; 1 Kg. 1:34; 19:16; 2 Chron. 6:42; Psa. 23:5; 89:20; 92:10; Dan. 9:24-27; Mk. 6:13; Acts 1:5; 2:1-4; 4:27; 10:44-46; 19:1-6; Rom. 8:23; 1 Cor. 12-14; 2 Cor. 1:21-22; Eph. 1:13-14; Jas. 5:14; 1 Jn. 4:13.



38. ANT

PRIMARY: Work, industry; wise organization.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Prov. 6:6-8; 30:25; Matt. 9:37-38; Jn. 4:14, 17:4.

BASIC INFORMATION: Approximately 100 species of ants live in the Holy Land, especially the harvester ant. “Ant” is taken from the Hebrew “nemalah” (Strong’s #5244) which means “an ant (probably from its almost bisected form).” Its root “namal” (Strong’s #5243) means “to become clipped or circumcised.” These tiny insects settle near grain fields, carrying seed into their private storehouses. In cold weather the ants cluster together and hibernate with food stored up until the next harvest. Socially and militarily organized, the ants have nests that are elaborately constructed. These wise workers have amazing instincts.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the divine Ant, the Lord of the harvest (Matt. 9:37-38), sent from Heaven to do the will of the Father and to finish His work (Jn. 4:34; 9:4). He is our Priest who came to do the work in the tabernacle of the congregation (Num. 4:3). Like Moses who mediated the law, Jesus was the New Testament Mediator who died for our sins and finished the work (Ex. 40:33; Jn. 1:17; 19:30). He is also the Creator of whom the Psalmist declared, “Of old hast Thou laid the foundation of the earth, and the heavens are the work of thy hands” (Psa. 102:25; Jn. 1:1-3).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: The ministry is spelled “work.” Solomon declared, “He that winneth souls is wise” (Prov. 11:30). Christians are reapers and harvesters (Prov. 6:8). Every believer is to be equipped to do the work of the ministry (Eph. 4:12). In the Day of the Lord, the divine fire shall try every man’s work of what sort it is (1 Cor. 3:14-15). We are to be steadfast, unmovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord (1 Cor. 15:58). From the time of Adam in the garden, God has desired creativity and productivity (Gen. 1:26-28; Col. 1:10). Jesus said, “The harvest truly is great…pray ye therefore the Lord of the harvest, that He would send forth labourers into His harvest” (Matt. 9:37-38; Lk. 10:2).


FURTHER STUDY: Gen. 2:2; Ex. 14:31; 20:9; 25:31; 28:6; Psa. 8:3; 44:1; 64:9; 77:12; 90:17; 111:2-3; 119:126; Prov. 6:9; 10:26; 13:4; 20:4; 26:16; Hab. 1:5; 3:2; Hag. 1:14; 2:4; Mk. 6:5; Jn. 5:17; 6:28-30; 7:21; 9:4; 10:33; Acts 13:2; 13:41; 14:26; Phil. 1:6; 2:12; 1 Thess. 4:11; 2 Thess. 3:10; 1 Tim. 3:1; 2 Tim. 4:5; Heb. 6:10; Rev. 22:12.



PRIMARY MEANING: Jesus Christ, the living Word of God.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Prov. 25:11; Song 2:3; 7:8; 8:5; Jn. 1:1-18; 6:63.

BASIC INFORMATION: The apple tree has rough bark and pink blossoms. “Apple” is from the Hebrew “tappuwach” (Strong’s #8598) which means “an apple (from its fragrance), the fruit or the tree (probably including others of the pome order, as the quince or the orange).” Many authorities believe the apple tree to be apricot, a shade tree nearly 30 feet in height, having a strong, invigorating perfume. Other authorities suggest the quince, peach, citron, orange, or some other fruit; some believe it was the apple. The apple tree was described as sweet and fragrant, golden, and suitable for shade.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the “apple tree” of the Song of Solomon (Song 2:3; 7:8; 8:5)–our satisfaction and shelter. He is the Word fitly spoken (Prov. 25:11; Jn. 1:14). His words are as “gold” (the divine nature); they are Spirit, and they are life (Jn. 6:63). Our King is constant and sure–the Tree of life–while the other trees of the forest are subject to the whims of the weather. His life and ministry was predetermined (Heb. 10:6-10), fixed in a setting of redemption, symbolized by “silver.” Jesus, the Pattern Son, the incarnate law of God, was the “apple” of His Father’s eye, greatly “beloved” (Prov. 7:2; Matt. 3:17; 17:5).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Jesus Christ is our “Beloved.” We sit down under His shadow with great delight, and His fruit is sweet to our taste (Song. 2:3-5). Eating God’s Word will enable us to grow up and “go up” to His stature, to acquire mature discernment–the smell of His nose like apples (Song. 7:8; Eph. 4:15). Every Christian is to be raised up under the apple tree, under tutors and governors, the five-fold ministry to whom has been given the stewardship of His Word (Song 8:5; Gal. 4:1-2; Eph. 4:11-16). The apple is used figuratively to show how precious we are to God, and how extremely sensitive He is to our wants. As the apple (pupil) of His eye, we are cherished by God–He knows our every need (Psa. 17:8; 23:1; Phil. 4:19).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 21:8; Deut. 32:10; 1 Sam. 2:21, 26; 3:19; 2 Sam. 5:10; Psa. 34:8; 104:34; 119:103-105; Prov. 7:2; Jer. 15:16; Lam. 2:18; Joel 1:12; Zech. 2:8; Matt. 6:28, 33; Mk. 4:27; Lk. 2:40, 51-52; Acts 7:17; 12:24; 19:20; Phil. 4:12-13; Heb. 4:12; 1 Pet. 2:2; 2 Pet. 3:18.



PRIMARY MEANING: Man’s religious attempts to cover sin.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 3:7, 21; Psa. 32:1-2; Prov. 14:12; Isa. 59:6; Acts 4:12; Heb. 9:22.

BASIC INFORMATION: The aprons worn by Adam and Eve were loincloths or girdles which apparently covered only the front of one’s body. “Aprons” is from the Hebrew “chagowr” (Strong’s #2290) and means “a belt (for the waist).” Also translated as “armor or girdle” in the King James Version, its verb form means “to gird on (as a belt, armor).” The New International Version translates “aprons” as “coverings” (the Hebrew word for “atonement” is “kaphar” and means “to cover over”).


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: The fig-leaf aprons were the first of man’s “many inventions” to weave a covering (a religious front) for his sin (Eccl. 7:29). But without the shedding of blood, there is no remission or forgiveness (Heb. 9:22). Jesus Christ alone is our “propitiation” (mercy-seat), through whom we have received the atonement (Rom. 5:11). It is the blood alone that atones for sin (Lev. 17:11). As the “Way” and the “Door” (Jn. 10:7; 14:6), Jesus is the only valid entry into the realm of spirit. Luke declared, “Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved” (Acts 4:12).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We cannot gird ourselves; another must gird us (Jn. 21:18). The prophet explained, “For the bed is shorter than that a man can stretch himself on it: and the covering narrower than that he can wrap himself in it” (Isa. 59:6). Jesus Christ alone has washed us from our sins in His own blood (Jn. 1:29; Rev. 1:5). We have “put off” the old man (apron) and “put on Christ,” the new man, which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness (Gal. 3:27-29; Eph. 4:22-24). Believers are to gird up the loins of their minds, and hope to the end for the grace that is to be brought at the revelation of Jesus Christ (Lk. 12:35; 1 Pet. 1:13).


FURTHER STUDY: See Lev. 14:51-52; 2 Sam. 18:11; 20:8; 1 Kg. 2:5; 2 Kg. 3:21; Job 9:29-31; Isa. 3:24; 28:20; 32:11; Joel 1;13; Matt. 3:4; Mk. 1:6; Lk. 12:37; 17:8; Jn. 13:4-5; Acts 12:8; 21:11; Rom. 5:9; 1 Cor. 3:11; Eph. 1:7; 1 Tim. 2:5-6; 1 Jn. 5:11-12; Rev. 1:13; 15:6.



PRIMARY MEANING: Man’s resting-place in Christ.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 8:4; Matt. 11:28-30; Jn. 14:27; Eph. 2:14; Heb. 4:1-9.

BASIC INFORMATION: Ararat is the mountainous region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea where Noah’s Ark rested when the Flood subsided. “Ararat” is transliterated from the Hebrew “‘Ararat” (Strong’s #780) which means “Ararat (or rather Armenia).” Some have translated “Ararat” as “sacred land, high or holy ground; the curse is reversed.”


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is “our peace,” our place of rest. He has broken down every wall and abolished in His flesh all enmity of the law of commandments contained in ordinances (Eph. 2:14-17). Mountains symbolize kingdoms–Jesus, the King of peace, has shared His rest with men (Jn. 14:27; Heb. 7:2). The Ark “rested” (to settle down, remain, be quiet) in the seventh month on the 17th day of the month (Gen. 8:4). Jesus was crucified on the Passover (the 14th day), and was resurrected three days later! His Ascension is also seen in that the Ark rested on the “mountains” of Ararat–Jesus sat down on high at the right hand of the Father, the Mediator of a new and better Covenant (Heb. 8:1-6). Like the creatures in the Ark, all nations shall gather to Him, and His rest shall be glorious (Isa. 11:10).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: There is a covenantal “rest’ that is given and a “rest” that is found (Matt. 11;28-30). In our initial salvation experience, we were given rest and peace through the forgiveness of sins (Eph. 1:6-7). Paul affirmed, “Therefore being justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ” (Rom. 5:1). The full measure of rest–the peace “of” God (Phil. 4:7; Col. 3:15)–is yet to be discovered in our maturity in Christ (Eph. 4:13). There remains a rest to the people of God. We must labor to enter into the high calling of that Sabbath experience (Phil. 3:12-14; Heb. 4:9-11).


FURTHER STUDY: See 2 Kg. 19:37; 2 Sam. 7:11; Song 1:7; Isa. 28:12; 37:38; 60:19-20; 63:14; Jer. 31:2; 51:27; Ezek. 44:30; Jn. 16:33; Rom. 8:6; 14:17; 16:20; Phil. 4:7; Gal. 5:22; Eph. 4:3; Heb. 3:11-4:9; Rev. 21:4.



PRIMARY MEANING: The foundation of God’s House.

KEY SCRIPTURES: 2 Sam. 24:18-25; 1 Chron. 21:18-26; 2 Chron. 3:1; Matt. 7:24-27; 1 Cor. 3:9-11; Heb. 6:1-3.

BASIC INFORMATION: Araunah (Ornan) was a Jebusite prince who owned a threshing floor on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem, the same place where Abraham had offered up Isaac. “Araunah” or “Ornan” is transliterated from the Hebrew “‘Ornan” (Strong’s #771) which means “strong.” Compare “‘oren” (the ash tree, from its toughness) and the primitive root “ranan” (to creak or emit a stridulous sound; to shout for joy). “Araunah” has also been translated as “pine of Jah, Jehovah is firm;” and “Ornan” as “active, tumultuous noise, rejoicing.” King David purchased Ornan’s threshing floor, which later became the building site for Solomon’s Temple.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ, the greater Son of David, paid the full price to stop the plague of sin and death (2 Sam. 24:24; 1 Chron. 21:22-24), and became the sure foundation of the New Testament Temple, His Church (Isa. 28:16; 1 Cor. 3:9-11; 2 Tim. 2:19). He was the whole burnt Offering given by the Father (Jn. 3:14-17). In His crucifixion, Jesus was betrayed by Judas for the price of thirty pieces of silver (see Zech. 11:12-13; Matt. 26:15; 27:3, 9; Acts 1:18-19). Jesus saw the Church, the “one pearl of great price,” then went and sold all that He had, and bought it (Matt. 13:46).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: The Church is the Virtuous Woman whose price is far above rubies (Prov. 31:10-31; Eph. 5:22-33). Peter testified that we were “not redeemed with corruptible things, as silver and gold,” but with “the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without blemish and without spot” (1 Pet. 1:18-19). The tragic story of Ananias and Sapphira teaches us to give God all, to glorify Him in our bodies and spirits (Acts 5:2-3; 1 Cor. 6:20). Jesus Christ the righteous is our everlasting foundation (Prov. 10:25). As the Temple of the Holy Spirit, we are to build our lives and ministries on Him (Matt. 7:24-27; 1 Cor. 3:11-17; Heb. 6:1-3).


FURTHER STUDY: See Deut. 15;14; 23:18; Ruth 3:1-6; 2 Sam. 6:6; 1 Kg. 5:17; 6:37; 10:28; Ezra 3:6-12; Job 28:13, 18; Prov. 27:26; Isa. 44:28; 55:1; Joel 2:24; Zech. 4:9; Matt. 3:12; 7:24-27; Lk. 3:17; 1 Cor. 7:3; 1 Pet. 3:4.



43. ARK (MOSES’)

PRIMARY MEANING: The preservation of godly leadership.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Ex. 1:15-22; 2:1-6; Matt. 2:16; 2 Cor. 11:29-33; Heb. 11:23.

BASIC INFORMATION: Moses’ ark was a small basket-like vessel in which Moses was hidden by his mother to preserve him from Pharaoh’s slaughter. “Ark” is from the Hebrew “tebah” (Strong’s #8392) which means “box.” The basket was made of woven papyrus reeds and sealed with a tar-like pitch.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Moses mediated the law (Jn. 1:17; Gal. 3:19); Jesus Christ is the Mediator of the New Covenant (1 Tim. 2:5). God preserved His servant Moses as a baby from Pharaoh’s diabolical attempt to kill the promised deliverer, prefiguring Jesus being saved from Herod’s devilish plot to destroy the promised Seed (Ex. 1:16, 22; Matt. 2:13, 16). As Moses was hid three months by his parents, so Jesus was kept secluded in the carpenter’s shop in Nazareth until the time of His public ministry (Matt. 3:13-17; Lk. 2:40-52; Acts 7:17-22). Jesus came to preserve life in the earth unto His heavenly Kingdom (Gen. 45:5-7; 2 Tim. 4:18; Jude 1:1).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We have died to sin, and our lives are hidden with Christ in God (Col. 3:1-3). The Psalmist promised that the Lord will protect His “hidden ones” in His pavilion, “in the secret of His tabernacle” (Psa. 27:5; 83:3). As Moses and Paul were preserved in a basket, godly leadership has been bound unto the will of God, partakers of hidden riches and wisdom (Isa. 45:3; 1 Cor. 2:7; 2 Cor. 11:29-33). God has purposed to preserve us alive (Deut. 6:24; Josh. 24:17). The prophetic Word of the Lord will keep His people (Hos. 12:13). The psalmist declared, “The Lord shall preserve thee from all evil: He shall preserve thy soul” (Psa. 121:7-8; 1 Thess. 5:23).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 6:14; 32:30; 1 Sam. 12:11; 1 Sam. 19:9-18; 30:23; 2 Sam. 8:6, 14; Job 29:2; Psa. 4:8; 16:1; 17:8; 25:21; 31:20; 37:28; 40:11; 51:6; 64:2; 119:117; Prov. 4:6; 18:10; 20:28; 29:25; Isa. 18:2; 26:3; 29:20-21; 31:5; 48:6; 49:8; Acts 9:22-25; 12:1-11; 1 Pet. 3:4; Rev. 2:17.


44. ARK (NOAH’S)

PRIMARY MEANING: Salvation, security and preservation in Christ.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 6:14-17; Matt. 24:37-41; Heb. 11:7; 1 Pet. 3:20-21.

BASIC INFORMATION: Noah’s Ark was a vessel built by Noah to save him, his family, and the animals from the Flood. “Ark” is from the Hebrew “tebah” (Strong’s #8392) which means “box.” The Ark was constructed of gopherwood or cypress, noted for its lightness and durability (used extensively in shipbuilding by the Phoenicians). Noah’s Ark was 300 cubits long, 50 cubits wide, and 30 cubits high–about 450 feet long, 75 feet wide, and 45 feet high. The Ark was constructed with three “decks,” or stories. When the time came for judgment, God Himself shut its door. The waters subsided after the Flood, and the Ark came to rest on the mountains of Ararat.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus spoke of the Flood and Noah’s Ark, comparing the days of Noah with the time of the coming of the Son of Man (Matt. 24:37-41; Luke 17:26-27). Noah’s Ark is a striking illustration of Jesus Christ, who preserves His house and family from the flood of divine judgment (Heb. 11:7). The “gopher wood” typifies His humanity (Heb. 2:14-18). The Ark was sealed inside and out with “pitch” (Gen. 6:14)–“kaphar” (the Hebrew word for “atonement”) which means “to cover.” The Ark had only one “door” and one “window” for light (Gen. 6:16)–Jesus Christ is the “Door of the sheep” and the “Light of the world” (Jn. 8:12; 10:7-9). The dimensions of Noah’s boat are most significant:


1. Noah’s Ark was 300 cubits long, the Bible number which denotes complete deliverance (see Gen. 5:22; Judg. 7:7-22; 1 Kg. 10:17; Mk. 14:3-6).


2. Noah’s Ark was 50 cubits wide, the Bible number signifying anointing, Pentecost, or Jubilee (Lev. 25; Acts 2:1-4).


3. Noah’s Ark was 30 cubits high, the Bible number for priestly authority and maturity (see Gen. 41:46; 2 Sam. 5:4; 1 Kg. 6:2; Lk. 3:23; Eph. 4:13).


These numbers reveal Jesus Christ in full authority and priestly stature, anointed to be the deliverance of God in the earth (Lk. 4:14-19; Acts 10:38). The multi-leveled decks of Noah’s Ark reveal Jesus Christ in three realms (paralleling the Outer Court, Holy Place, and Most Holy Place of Moses’ Tabernacle, as well as the Feasts of the Lord)–Jesus is Savior in Passover, Baptizer in Pentecost, and Lord in Tabernacles (Ex. 25:40; Deut. 16;16).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We are safe in Christ, protected and sealed by the blood of the Passover Lamb (Ex. 12:12-14; Rom. 8:34-39). The Flood bringing an end to Noah’s world is a figure of water baptism washing away our old life (Acts 2:38; 1 Pet. 3:20-21). Noah’s Ark had many “rooms” (Gen. 6:14), the Hebrew word for “nests, chambers, or dwellings”–in Him there is a place for each of us (Psa. 84:7; Jn. 14:2, 23; 1 Cor. 12:27). The length, breadth, and height of Noah’s Ark reveal a glorious Church in full authority and priestly stature, anointed to bring God’s deliverance to creation (Acts 1:1; 1 Jn. 4:17). There are three dimensions of our maturity in Christ–we are born again, Spirit-filled, then mature (Jn. 3:1-8; Acts 2:1-4; 1 Cor. 13:8-13).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 45:5-7; Deut. 6:24; Josh. 24:17; 2 Sam. 8:6, 14; Psa. 4:8; 16:1; 32:7; 41:2; 121:7-8; Prov. 2:11; 20:28; 21:31; 24:6; Isa. 31:5; 49:6-8; Hos. 12:13; Matt. 9:17; Lk. 5:38; 17:33; Acts 2:38; Col. 3:1-3; 1 Thess. 5:23; 2 Tim. 4:18; 2 Pet. 2:5; Jude 1:1.



PRIMARY MEANING: The glory and presence of God’s throne.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Ex. 25:10-22; Rom. 3:25; Eph. 1:20-23; Col. 2:9; Heb. 4:14-16; Rev. 3:21.

BASIC INFORMATION: The Ark of the Covenant with its mercy seat was the most important sacred object of the Israelites in their Old Testament history. “Ark” is from the Hebrew “‘arown” (Strong’s #727) which means “box,” also translated as “coffin” (Gen. 50:26) and “chest” (2 Kg. 12:9-10; 2 Chron. 24:8-11) in the King James Version. The parallel Greek word “kibotos” means “a wooden box, a chest” (Heb. 9:4; Rev. 11:19). The Ark of the Covenant was also known as:


1. The ark of shittim wood (Ex. 25:10).


2. The ark of the testimony (Ex. 25:22).


3. The ark of the Lord (Josh. 4:11).


4. The ark of the covenant of God (Judg. 20:27).


5. The ark of the God of Israel (1 Sam. 5:7).


6. The ark of Thy strength (2 Chron. 6:41).


7. The holy ark (2 Chron. 35:3).


The Ark of the Covenant was the only article of furniture in the innermost room, or Holy of Holies, of Moses’ tabernacle and Solomon’s Temple. The Ark was a “coffin,” or chest 2 1/2 cubits long, 1 1/2 cubits wide, and 1 1/2 cubits deep. Built and fashioned by Bezaleel, the Ark was made of acacia or shittim wood overlaid inside and outside with pure gold. It had four rings of gold through which staves (carrying poles) were inserted. The Ark had a slab or cover of pure gold known as the mercy seat and a gold molding or crown surrounding the top edge. Standing at opposite ends of the mercy seat and of one piece with it were two angelic statues called cherubim, facing each other with wings outstretched above. Within the Ark were the two stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments, the golden pot of manna, and Aaron’s rod that budded. The Ark crossed the Jordan and was carried around Jericho in the days of Joshua. It was later stolen by the Philistines, then recovered. The Ark of the Covenant remained at Kirjath-jearim until David brought it to Jerusalem. Finally, Solomon established it in the Holy of Holies of his temple. The Ark disappeared with Nebuchadnezzar’s destruction of Jerusalem in 586 B.C.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the embodiment of the Ark of the Covenant, “all the fulness of the Godhead bodily” (Col. 1:19; 2:9; Rev. 19:16). He overcame the world, the flesh, and the devil–His eternal victory has been secured (Jn. 14:30; 16:33; Rom. 15:8; Rev. 3:21). Like the Ark, Jesus has been crowned with glory and honor (Heb. 2:9). He is our “Propitiation,” literally, our “mercy seat” (Rom. 3:25). The Ark of the Covenant in the midst of Israel (when camped and on the march) prefigures the abiding presence of Jesus Christ by the Spirit in the midst of the redeemed (Matt. 18:18-20; 28:20; Heb. 13:5). It contents reveal Jesus’ absolute righteousness and perfect obedience (the unbroken tables of the law), His being the Manna from Heaven (the Bread of life), and God’s chosen Priest (Aaron’s rod that budded). The throne of judgment has become “the throne of grace”–the mercy seat–the place from which Jesus Christ operates His more excellent ministry as king and priest after the order (manner) of Melchisedec (Heb. 4:15-16; 6:20; 8:1-6).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Believers have been called to share the glory of His throne (Rev. 3:21). Jesus has entered within the veil for us, made a High Priest forever after the order of Melchisedec (Heb. 6:19-20). The New Testament Church is His “royal priesthood” (1 Pet. 2:9). John declared that He has “made us unto our God kings and priests, and we shall reign on the earth” (Rev. 1:6; 5:10). There is a high calling and prize for those who overcome (Phil. 3:12-14; Rev. 2:26-28; 21:7). The cherubim in union with the mercy seat reveal the sons of God glorified and redeemed (Ezek. 1; Isa. 8:18; Heb. 2:6-13). The Ark divided the Jordan and backed the waters to the city “Adam;” the nation of Israel entered the promised land two thousand cubits later (Josh. 3:1-4, 16). Jesus Christ rent the veil and conquered death, opening the heavenlies; two thousand years later, His Glorious Church will possess the promise of God (Matt. 27:51; 2 Pet. 1:3-4)! Joshua cried, “Sanctify yourselves, for tomorrow the Lord will do wonders among you” (Josh. 3:5; Jer. 33:3)!


FURTHER STUDY: See Ex. 30:26; 37:1-9; Num. 2:17; 4:5-6; 10:29-36; Deut. 31:9-26; Josh. 3-4; 1 Sam. 4-6; 1 Kg. 8; 1 Chron. 13-15; Psa. 132:8; Isa. 42:1-5; Jer. 3:14-17; Matt. 5:17-20; Jn. 5:22; 6:48; Heb. 9:4; Rev. 1:13; 11:19.


46. ARM

PRIMARY: Power, strength, might.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Isa. 53:1; 59:16; Jer. 32:17; Jn. 12:38; Acts 1:8.

BASIC INFORMATION: In the Bible, the arm is frequently used as a symbol of God’s power, strength, or might. “Arm” is from the Hebrew “zerowa'” (Strong’s #2220) which means “the arm (as stretched out)” and the primitive root “zara'” (Strong’s #2232) which means “to sow; figuratively, to disseminate, plant, fructify.” “Zerowa'” has also been translated as “power, strength, help.” The most common reference of God’s “arm” is to His deliverance during the Exodus, when He redeemed Israel from bondage in Egypt.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is “the Arm of the Lord” who brought salvation (Isa. 53:1; 59:16; 63:5). Jeremiah declared, “Ah Lord God! Behold, Thou hast made the heaven and the earth by Thy great power and stretched out arm, and there is nothing too hard for Thee” (Jer. 32:17). God has redeemed us by his great power (Ex. 6:6; Psa. 77:15; Gal. 3:13-14). Jesus, the Son, at the right hand of the Father, is the Light of the world (Psa. 44:3; Jn. 8:12; Eph. 1:20-23), whose countenance is like the sun shining in its strength (Rev. 1:16). John exclaimed, “Worthy is the Lamb that was slain to receive power, and riches, and wisdom, and strength” (Rev. 5:12).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: The apostle declared, “When we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly” (Rom. 5:6). As the redeemed of the Lord, we are kept by the arm of His strength (Isa. 62:8). In the New Covenant, Jesus, the Arm of the Lord, has been revealed, and we have believed His report (Jn. 12:38). As with the Psalmist, we love the Lord our Strength, and our Redeemer (Psa. 18:1-2; 19:14). The power of His Spirit is the strength of our lives, a very present help in trouble (Psa. 27:1; 46:1; Acts 1:8). Our strength is made perfect in weakness as we grow in grace, from glory to glory, from faith to faith, “from strength to strength” (Psa. 84:7; Rom. 1:17; 2 Cor. 3:18). The apostle proclaimed, “Be strong in the Lord, and in the power of His might” (Psa. 89:13; Eph. 6:10).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 49:24; Ex. 15:16; Deut. 4:34; 33:20; Job 31:22; 40:9; 71:18; Psa. 18:34; Song 8:6; Isa. 17:5; 30:30; 35:3-4; 40:31; 51:9; 63:12; Jer. 21:5; 32:21; Lk. 1:51; 2:40; Acts 13:17; 2 Cor. 12:10; 1 Jn. 4:4.




PRIMARY MEANING: Putting on Christ.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Judg. 9:54; 1 Sam. 14:6-17; Rom. 13:11-14; Eph. 4:22-32; 6:10-18.

BASIC INFORMATION: An armorbearer was a servant who carried additional weapons for commanders. “Armorbearer” is from two Hebrew words: “nasa” (to lift) and “keliy” (Strong’s #3627) which means “something prepared, any apparatus (as an implement, utensil, dress, vessel, or weapon).” The judge Abimelech, Prince Jonathan and captain Joab had armorbearers. David was once Saul’s armorbearer. After the enemy was wounded by their masters, armorbearers were responsible to finish the job. Armorers (smiths and leather workers) are mentioned in the days of Saul. Hebrew soldiers used shields, helmets, breastplates of scale-like plates, and greaves (leg armor).


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ, the greater Son of David, was the armorbearer for the heavenly Father, being the brightness of His glory and the express image of His person, upholding all things by the word of His power (1 Sam. 16:21; Heb. 1:3). Jesus is the “armor of light” that believers are to put on (Jn. 8:12; Rom. 13:11-14). He is also Heaven’s Armorer, outfitting and equipping his Church to bear His image (Rom. 13:11-14; 1 Cor. 15:49). King Jesus ascended His throne and sent the five-fold ministry to arm and equip His Church (Eph. 4:8-16).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We are to put on Christ–the “armor of light”–to bear the image of the heavenly (Rom. 13:11-14; 1 Cor. 15:49; Gal. 3:27-29). Paul taught, “The weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strongholds” (2 Cor. 10:4). Believers are admonished to put on the whole armor of God (Eph. 6:11, 13). Yoked together with Christ, we are called to follow hard after Him (1 Sam. 14:13-14; Matt. 11:28-30). Jesus gave satan a death blow on Calvary; as His armorbearers, we are to finish the job (Acts 1:1; Rom. 16:20; 2 Cor. 2:14)!


FURTHER STUDY: See Lev. 26:7-8; Josh. 23:10; Psa. 18:29; 45:13; Prov. 31:21-25; Isa. 11:5; 61:3; Matt. 22:11; 25:36; Mk. 5:15; Lk. 24:49; 1 Cor. 15:53-54; 2 Cor. 5:1-5; Eph. 4:24; Col. 3:10-14; Heb. 11:34; 1 Pet. 5:5; Rev. 1:13.



PRIMARY: Hidden riches and treasures.

KEY SCRIPTURES: 2 Kg. 20:13; Neh. 3:19; Song 4:14; Jer. 50:25; Col. 2:3.

BASIC INFORMATION: An armory was an official storehouse, or treasury, for military weapons. “Armory,” from the Hebrew “‘owtsar” (Strong’s #214) which means “a depository,” is translated in the King James Version as “armory, cellar, garner, store (-house), treasure (-house). It comes from the primitive root “‘atsar” (to store up). Another Hebrew word for “armoury” is “nesheq” (Strong’s #5402) which means “military equipment, arms, an arsenal.” Its root “nashaq” means “to equip with weapons.”


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is God’s “battle axe and weapons of war”–the One who has broken nations and kingdoms (Jer. 51:20; Dan. 2:44-49). He is Heaven’s Armory–all things are stored up and summed up in Him (Heb. 8:1). In Him are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge (Col. 2:3). The Church has been armed with His nature (the fruit of the Spirit) and His ministry (the gifts of the Spirit). Jesus, the Pattern Son, is the “hidden wisdom” (1 Cor. 1:30; 2:7) and the “hidden manna” (Jn. 6:48; Rev. 2:17). The Spirit of Christ is “the hidden Man of the heart” (Col. 1:27; Gal. 4:6; 1 Pet. 3:4).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Believers have been blessed with all spiritual blessings in heavenly places in Christ (Psa. 23:1; Eph. 1:3). The ascended Lord has opened to us His good treasure and “His hand”–“gifts” to equip the Church (Deut. 28:12; Psa. 145:16; Eph. 4:8-16). We have been fully furnished with every bit of His armor (Eph. 6:10-18). As heirs of God, our stores been filled with divine riches (Psa. 33:7; Prov. 8:21). The fear of the Lord is our treasure, the hidden riches of secret places (Isa. 33:6; 45:3; 2 Cor. 4:7). The Bride of Christ has been built “for an armoury, wherein there hang a thousand bucklers, all shields of mighty men” (Song 4:14; Eph. 6:16; Heb. 11). To reciprocate these covenantal blessings, we are to bring all the tithes into His “storehouse” (Prov. 3:9-10; Mal. 3:10).


FURTHER STUDY: See Josh. 6:19, 24; 1 Kg. 7:51; 1 Chron. 9:26; 26:20; 27:25-28; 2 Chron. 5:1; 32:37; Neh. 10:38; 13:12-13; Job 28:20-21; Psa. 51:6; 135:7; Prov. 2:4; Isa. 39:2; 45:3; 48:6; Jer. 50:25; Dan. 1:2; Matt. 12:35; 13:44, 52; Rom. 11:33; Eph. 3:9.


PRIMARY MEANING: Covenantal direction and purpose; conviction.

KEY SCRIPTURES: 2 Kg. 3:14-19; Job 6:4; Psa. 38:2; Isa. 49:2; Zech. 9:14.

BASIC INFORMATION: The arrow was the destructive agent of a bow. “Arrow” is from the Hebrew “chets” (Strong’s #2671) which means “a piercer, an arrow; by implication, a wound; figuratively (of God), a thunder-bolt.” Compare the two primitive roots “chatsats” (to chop into, to curtail) and “chatsah” (to cut or split in two, to halve). Note also that “darak” (Strong’s #1869) means “to tread, by implication, to walk; also to string a bow (by treading on it in bending).” Translated in the King James Version as “archer, bend (the bow),” this latter Hebrew word illustrates the principle of covenant. Moreover, the “bow” (rainbow) in the cloud and the “bow” (and arrow) are the same word. The arrow was a long, slender shaft of wood with a tip of sharp stone or metal. To draw ancient war bows required a pull of 100 pounds. The arrows could pierce almost all armor.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ was “the Arrow of the Lord’s deliverance” (2 Kg. 13:17), drawn from the Father’s quiver and directed by the Father’s desire (Jn. 1:14-18; 8:29). His mission already predetermined by the everlasting covenant, He came to do the Father’s will (Psa. 110:1-4; Heb. 10:6-10; 13:20). Jesus, the living Word, is the “sharp sword” and the “polished shaft” (Isa. 49:2; Heb. 4:12; 5:7-9). His arrows are sharp in the heart of His enemies–the nations fall at His feet (Psa. 45:5).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: In Christ, we are the covenantal seed of Abraham (Gal. 3:27-29). The sons of God are “sharp arrows of the mighty,” directed by the hand of the Holy Spirit and sent to do the will of God (Psa. 120:4; Rom. 8:14; Eph. 4:11). We who are of the tribe of Judah have been selected, placed, and bent as a bow (Zech. 9;13; Heb. 7:14). God’s children are bright arrows in the hand of their Father who “go forth as the lightning” (Psa. 127:4; Jer. 51:11; Zech. 9:14). In the Psalms, arrows also speak of conviction–“For Thine arrows stick fast in me, and Thy hand presseth me sore” (Psa. 38:2). “For the arrows of the Almighty are within me” (Job. 6:4).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 9:13-16; 21:20; 49:23; Num. 24:8; Deut. 11:24-25; Josh. 1:3; 1 Sam. 31:3; 2 Sam. 11:24; 1 Chr. 5:18; 8:40; 10:3; 2 Chron. 14:8; Job 16:13; Psa. 18:14; 45:5; 58:7; 64:7; 76:1-3; 77:17; 144:6; Isa. 5:28; 21:15; Jer. 9:3; 46:9; 50:14, 29; 51:3; Lam. 2:4; 3:12; Hab. 3:11; Zech. 9:10, 13.




PRIMARY MEANING: The chief singer.

KEY SCRIPTURES: 1 Chron. 6:31-39; 16:1-7; Psa. 50, 73-83; Hab. 3:19.

BASIC INFORMATION: Asaph was a Levite and the son of Berachiah the Gershonite. “Asaph” is from the Hebrew “‘Acaph” (Strong’s #623) and means “collector.” It is taken from a primitive root which means “to gather for any purpose; hence, to receive.” “Asaph” has also been translated as “gatherer, harvester, assembler.” Asaph, a chief singer and recorder, sounded cymbals before the Ark of the Covenant when it was moved from the house of Obed-Edom to Jerusalem. This chief musician was an igniter that lit each flame, reproducing himself in his sons. Asaph’s family became one of the three families given responsibility for music and song in the Temple. Following the Captivity, 128 singers from this family returned from Babylon and conducted the singing when the foundations of Zerubbabel’s temple were laid. Twelve psalms (Psalms 50, 73-83) are attributed to the family of Asaph.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the “Chief Singer” (Hab. 3:19) as well as the “Chief Cornerstone” and “Chief Shepherd” who stands on the right hand (1 Chron. 6:39; 1 Pet. 2:6; 5:4). The spirit of the Son sings praise to the Father in the midst of the Church (Psa. 22:22; Gal. 4:6; Heb. 2:12). No one ever sobbed like the Lamb of God, and no one can sing like Jesus! As fire from Heaven, He is the true Light who lights every man that comes into the world (Jn. 1:9). Our great and merciful High Priest ministers before the Father continually, as every day’s work requires (1 Chron. 16:37; Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We are the “brethren” of our heavenly Asaph (1 Chron. 16:7; 25:7; Rom. 8:29). Those who sob with Him will sing with Him (Rom. 8:17). We are “the sons of Asaph” who can prophesy with harps, with psalteries, and with cymbals (1 Chron. 25:1; 1 Cor. 14:1, 31; Eph. 5:19). Paul admonished us to express worship through psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs, “singing and making melody” in our hearts to the Lord (Eph. 5:19). All is to be done according to the king’s order (1 Chron. 25:6; 1 Cor. 14:40). Believers have been arrayed in white linen, the righteousness of saints (2 Chron. 5:12; Rev. 19:8).


FURTHER STUDY: See 1 Chron. 9:15; 15:14-19; 25:1-9; 2 Chron. 20:14; 29:13, 30; 35:15; Ezra 2:41; 3:10; Neh. 7:44; 11:17, 22; 12:35, 46; Amos 9:11-12; Acts 15:14-18; Col. 3:16; Heb. 13:15; 1 Pet. 2:5; Rev. 19:10.



PRIMARY MEANING: Happiness, the joy of the Lord.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 30:13; 49:20; Josh. 17:7; Neh. 8:10; Jn. 15:11; Rom. 14:17.

BASIC INFORMATION: Asher was the eighth son of Jacob, the second by Leah’s maidservant, Zilpah. “Asher,” transliterated from the Hebrew “‘Asher” (Strong’s #836), means “happy.” Its primitive root means “to be straight (especially to be level, right, happy); figuratively, to go forward, be honest, proper.”


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Leah, the mother of Asher, and Mary, the mother of Jesus, both declared themselves blessed (Gen. 30;13; Lk. 1:48). Jesus is the “blessed” or “happy” God (1 Tim. 1:11). The bread of the heavenly Asher is from Heaven, yielding “royal dainties,” fit for a king (Gen. 49:20; Jn. 6:48; Eph. 1:3). Jesus has been blessed with children, many sons (Deut. 33:24; Isa. 8:18; Heb. 2:6-13). Paul declared, “For the joy that was set before Him,” Jesus endured the cross (Heb. 12:2). He has dipped His foot in oil (Deut. 33:24; Acts 10:38) and His vesture in blood (Rev. 19:13).


Jesus declared, “These things have I spoken unto you, that My joy might remain in you” (Jn. 15:11).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: The joy of the Lord is our strength (Neh. 8:10). Overcoming Christians who know His joy go forth each day to battle, being expert in war (1 Chron. 12:36). His joy remains in us that our joy might be full (Jn. 15:11). The Kingdom of God is “righteousness, and peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost” (Acts 13:52; Rom. 14:17), and the fruit of the Spirit is joy (Gal. 5:22-23). Knowing that His strength will enable us to finish our course with joy, we rejoice with joy unspeakable and full of glory (Acts 20:24; 1 Pet. 1:8). He alone is able to keep us from falling, to present us faultless before the presence of His glory with exceeding joy (Jude 1:24).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 35:26; 46:17; Ex. 1:4; Num. 1:13, 40-41; 2:27; 7:72; 10:26; 13:13; 26:44-47; 34:27; Deut. 27:13; Josh. 17:7-11; 19:31-34; 21:6, 30; Judg. 1:31; 5:37; 6:35; 7:23; 1 Kg. 4:16; 1 Chron. 2:2; 6:62, 74; 7:30, 40; 2 Chron. 30:11; Ezek. 48:2-3, 34; John 3:29; 16:20-24; 17:13; Acts 2:28; 8:8; 13:52; 15:3; 20:24.



PRIMARY MEANING: A finished work or vanquished foe; also, a sign of mourning.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Ex. 27:3; Lev. 6:10-11; Dan. 9:3; Jn. 19:30.

BASIC INFORMATION: Ashes are the powdery residue of burned material. Two Hebrew words are translated as “ashes”: “‘epher” (to bestrew, ashes) and “deshen” (the fat; specifically, the fatty ashes of sacrifices). The latter is taken from the primitive root “dashen” (Strong’s #1878) which means “to be fat, to fatten, to anoint.” The ashes that remained after the sacrifice of animals as burnt offerings were carried away and disposed of by a priest.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ died on the cross, defeated the devil, and cried, “It is finished” (Jn. 19:30)! As the ashes of the Levitical sacrifices were carried aside “unto a clean place” (Ex. 27:3; Lev. 6:10-11), so His body was laid aside in the tomb of Joseph of Arimathaea (Matt. 27:57-60; Mk. 15:43-46). The ashes of the old animal sacrifices and the blood of the Lamb were poured out “without the camp” (Lev. 4:12; Heb. 13:12). The altars of both Testaments were clothed in purple (Num. 4:13; Mk. 15:17; Heb. 13:10)!


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We are to present our bodies as a “living sacrifice” (Rom. 12:1-2). As the whole burnt offering was completely consumed, we are to offer all to God (Matt. 6:33). We used to be idolaters, feeding on ashes (Isa. 44:20). Now we are new creatures in Christ, having been given beauty for ashes (Isa. 61:3). Paul admonished, “Let us go forth unto Him without the camp, bearing his reproach’ (Heb. 13:13). There are times of brokenness and intercession, when, like the prophet Daniel, we must set ourselves to seek the Lord by prayer and supplications, with fasting, sackcloth, and ashes (Dan. 9:3).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 18:27; Ex. 9:8-10; Lev. 1:16; Num. 19:9-10, 17; 2 Sam. 13:19; 1 Kg. 13:3-5; 20:38; 2 Kg. 23:4; Esth. 4:1-3; Job 2:8; 30:19; 42:6; Psa. 102:9; 147:16; Isa. 58:5; Jer. 6:26; 25:34; Lam. 3:16; Ezek. 28:18; Jonah 3:6; Mal. 4:3; Matt. 11:21; Lk. 10:13; Heb. 9:13; 2 Pet. 2:6.




PRIMARY MEANING: The burden-bearer.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 49:11-15; Isa. 53:4; Matt. 21:1-7; Gal. 6:1-2.

BASIC INFORMATION: The ass or donkey was used from the remotest antiquity as a beast of burden. “Ass” is from the Hebrew “chamowr” (Strong’s #2543) and means “a male ass (from its dun red).” Its primitive root “chamar” means “to boil up; hence, to ferment (with scum); to glow with redness; to smear with pitch.” “Wild” (lonesome) donkeys, headstrong and untamed, also roamed the land, but the domesticated donkey was an obedient servant. His true role was to serve as a work animal–trampling seed, turning the millstone to grind grain, and pulling the plow.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the chief Burden-bearer, having borne our griefs and carried our sorrows (Isa. 53:4; Matt. 8:17), bearing our sins in His body on the tree (1 Pet. 2:24). Paul added, “Christ was once offered to bear the sins of many” (Heb. 9:28). To fulfill Scripture, our King came into Jerusalem “riding upon an ass, and a colt the foal of an ass” (Zech. 9:9; Matt. 21:1-7). We can cast all our cares upon the strong shoulders of Him who upholds all things by the word of His power (Isa. 9:6-7; Heb. 1:3; 1 Pet. 5:7).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Two crosses put us to death: His and ours! Each man must humbly and obediently deny himself, take up his cross daily, and follow Jesus (Matt. 16:24; Lk. 9:23). Before we were saved, our nature was like that of Ishmael, “a wild ass alone by himself” (Gen. 16:11-12; Hos. 8:9). But we cast our burden upon God and were redeemed by a Lamb (Ex. 34:20; Psa. 55:22; Gal. 3:13-14), then bridled by the Holy Spirit (Prov. 26:3; Gal. 5:17). As the ass’ colt (son), we are now bound in covenant to “the choice Vine” (Gen. 49:11; Jn. 15:1-7). His yoke is easy and His burden is light (Matt. 11:30). In a day when the strength of the bearers of burdens (intercessors) is decayed (Neh. 4:10), we must bear one another’s burdens, and so fulfill the law of Christ (Rom. 15:1; Gal. 6:2).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 22:3; 32:5; 49:14; Lev. 19:9; Deut. 22:10; 2 Sam. 18:9; 1 Kin. 1:33; 18:5; Ezra 2:66; Job 24:3; 39:5; Isa. 1:3; 21:7; 30:24; 32:20; Jer. 22:19; 23:20; Hos. 8:9; Zech. 14:15; Mk. 11:2; Lk. 13:15; 14:5; Jn. 12:14; 2 Pet. 2:16.




PRIMARY MEANING: The perpetual enemies of God’s people.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Gen. 2:14; 10:11, 22; 2 Kg. 19:35.

BASIC INFORMATION: Assyria was a kingdom between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers that dominated the ancient world from the ninth century to the seventh century B.C. “Assyria” is from the Hebrew “‘Ashshuwr” (Strong’s #804) and means “successful.” Its primitive root “‘ashar” means “to be straight (especially to be level, right, happy).” The Assyrians were the rod of Jehovah’s correction who conquered and carried captive the northern kingdom of Israel in 722 B.C. King Sennacherib of Assyria later planned an attack on Jerusalem, but his army was struck by a plague, ministered by “the angel of the Lord.” The Hebrew people harbored deep-seated hostility against this nation and its principal city Nineveh, as revealed in the Book of Jonah.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: The “Angel of the Lord” is a mysterious messenger of God in the Old Testament, sometimes described as the Lord Himself (Ex. 3:1-6). Jesus Christ is the pre-incarnate Angel of the Lord, the “Messenger of the covenant” who has delivered us from the Assyrian (Mic. 5:5-6; Mal. 3:1; Jn. 1:1-18). He has made Nineveh a desolation, having destroyed the works of the devil (Zeph. 2:13; 1 Jn. 3:8). As the rightful Seed of Abraham, Jesus has possessed the gate of His enemies (Gen. 22:17; Matt. 1:1; Gal. 3:16). The greater son of David has saved us from the hand of all that hate us (Lk. 1:71). He is the gracious God made flesh, merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness (Jon. 4:2) The Savior is ever ready to forgive, plenteous in mercy unto all them who call upon Him (Psa. 86:5; 1 Jn. 1:9).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Like Jonah, we have been called to love our enemies, those who make tumult and take crafty counsel against God and His people (Psa. 83:2-3, 8)–“enemies of the cross of Christ” (Phil. 3:18). In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus taught us to “love your enemies, do good to them which hate you, bless them that curse you, and pray for them which despitefully use you” (Lk. 6:27-28). We must remember that we ourselves were at one time alienated and enemies in our minds by wicked works (Col. 1:21). When we refuse to retaliate and take vengeance, the pride of Assyria shall be brought down (Zech. 10:11).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 25:18; Num. 24:22-24; 2 Kg. 15:19; 16:7-10; 17:4; Psa. 130:4; Isa. 10:5; 66:6; Hos. 8:9; 14:3; Mic. 7:12; Nah. 3:18; Zech. 10:10; Matt. 5:44-48; 6:12-15; 18:21-22; Acts 5:31; 13:38; 26:18; 2 Cor. 2:6-11; Eph. 1:6-7; Col. 2:14.



PRIMARY MEANING: False religion.

KEY SCRIPTURES: 2 Kg. 8:26; 11:1-21; 2 Chron. 22:10-23:21; Prov. 7; Rev. 17-18.

BASIC INFORMATION: Athaliah, the daughter of Ahab and Jezebel of Israel, was the queen of Judah for six years. “Athaliah” is from the Hebrew “‘Athalyah” (Strong’s #6271) and means “Jah has constrained.” “Athaliah” has also been translated as “Jehovah is strong, Jehovah suspends, distress or affliction of Jehovah.” She married King Jehoram of Judah, who reigned only eight years and was succeeded by his son Ahaziah (who died after only one year). Desiring the throne for herself, Athaliah ruthlessly killed all her grandsons except the infant Joash, who was hidden in the house of the Lord for six years. In the seventh year, the high priest Jehoiada declared Joash the lawful king of Judah and Athaliah was put to death.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Just as Jehoida the High Priest overthrew the plans of Athaliah, the wicked woman who had broken up the house of God (2 Chron. 24:7), so Jesus Christ toppled the tables of the moneychangers (Matt. 21:12-13). Athaliah prefigures “the mother of harlots,” the queen of false religions who shall be judged in one day (Rev. 17:5; 18:7-9). Athaliah arose and destroyed all the royal seed (2 Kg. 11:1). Satan is “the god of this world” (2 Cor. 4:4) whose false seed of religious mixture is at enmity with the Truth (Gen. 3:15; Jn. 14:6). Like Athaliah’s reign of “six years” (2 Kg. 11:3), man has labored for “six days,’ or six thousand years (Ex. 20:9; 2 Pet. 3:8). Little King Joash, a type of Jesus Christ, the rightful king, came to the throne in the seventh year, the sabbath (2 Kg. 11:4, 12). All false religion will eventually be destroyed “with the sword beside the king’s house” (2 Kg. 11:20; Eph. 6:17; Heb. 4:12).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Athaliah is the “strange woman” of the Book of Proverbs (Prov. 7:5), in contrast with the “virtuous woman,” a pictureof the true Church (Prov. 31:10-31). The High Priest Jehoida took five men into covenant with him to overthrow Athaliah, a powerful picture of the five ministries sent by Jesus to equip the true Church (2 Chron. 23:1; Eph. 4:11-13). Athaliah was tormented when all the people of the land rejoiced and sounded trumpets with the singers and instruments of music (2 Chron. 23:13; Psa. 150). So false religion is hearing “the noise of the people running and praising the King” (2 Chron. 23:12; Heb. 13:15). Those who follow the ways of Athaliah shall be slain with the sword (2 Chron. 23:14; Rom. 6:23; 8:1-6). As the people of Judah went into the house of Baal and broke it down, we are to cast down imaginations, and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge (Word) of God (2 Chron. 23:17; 2 Cor. 10:3-6).


FURTHER STUDY: See Gen. 11:1-9; 12:1-3; Josh. 24:14-15; 1 Kg. 18:21-24; 2 Chron. 22:2; Prov. 2:16; 5:3, 20; 6:24; 20:16; 23:27; 27:13; Isa. 1; Matt. 15:9; Mk. 7:13; Rom. 1:18-25; 2 Cor. 2:17; 6:14-7:1; Gal. 4:1-2; Col. 2:8; 2 Thess. 2:1-12; 2 Tim. 3:1-7; Rev. 17-18.

56. AUL (AWL)

PRIMARY MEANING: The heart of a servant (bondslave).

KEY SCRIPTURES: Ex. 21:1-6; Deut. 15:17; Psa. 40:6; Isa. 42:1-5; Phil. 2.

BASIC INFORMATION: Awls were used by carpenters and leatherworkers to punch holes. “Aul” is from the Hebrew “martsea'” (Strong’s #4836) and means “an awl.” The primitive root “ratsa'” (Strong’s #7527) means “to pierce” and is translated in the King James Version as “bore.” The Old Testament slave had an ear lobe pierced as a sign of his willingness to serve his master forever–the earmark of a love-slave. Archaeologists have found such tools to be about six inches long, made of iron or bronze, coming to a sharp conical point. The Greek word that expresses these thoughts is “doulos” (Strong’s #1401) which means “a slave; one who gives himself up to the will of another.”


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the perfect Servant of Jehovah (Isa. 42:1-5) who delighted to do the will of the Father, pierced for man’s sin (Psa. 22:16; Jn. 19:34-37). He is pictured as an Ox (burden-bearer) throughout the Gospel of Mark, the One who came to minister, to give His life a ransom for many (Mk. 10:45). The Hebrew slave loved his “master,” his “wife” and his “children” (Ex. 21:5)–Jesus loves His Father, His Bride (the Church), and His sons (Jn. 8:29; Heb. 2:13; Rev. 21:9). The boring of the ear was a symbol of obedience and perpetual servitude (Psa. 40:6-8; Heb. 10:6-10). The Messiah was not rebellious, but gave His back to the smiters (Isa. 50:5-6). The Lord Jesus forever carries about in His body the marks of His obedience (Zech. 13:6; Jn. 20:25-27; Rev. 1:7). The Mind of Christ is the mind of a humble servant. Jesus “humbled Himself, and became obedient unto death, even the death of the cross” (Phil. 2:6-8).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Prior to Isaiah 53 (predicting Jesus’ crucifixion), the word “servant” is singular; beginning with Isaiah 54:17, the “Servant” became an army of “servants” when the Seed planted in death came forth in resurrection (Jn. 12:24)! The heart of all true ministry is that of a servant–we love our Master (Jesus), our wife (the Church), and our children (spiritual offspring). Pierced through by the dealings of the cross, we have been marked for God (Gal. 6:17; Rev. 14:1-5). As exampled by Timothy and Epaphroditus, we are to have “the mind of Christ,” the mind of humility (Phil. 2:5, 19-30; 1 Pet. 5:5). Our ear is to be joined in covenant to Him who is “the Door” (Jn. 10:7). We don’t serve the Lord because we have to–we want to!


FURTHER STUDY: See Lev. 25:39-42; Job 41:4; Isa. 48:8; 52:13; 53:11; 56:6; 63:17; 65:8-9, 13-15; 66:14; Mk. 16:20; Lk. 2:49-52; 22:27; Jn. 6:38; 13:1-30; Rom. 1:1; 6:16-20; 15:3; Gal. 4:1, 7; Eph. 6:5-8; Phil. 1:1; Col. 3:22; Heb. 5:7-9; Rev. 1:1; 7:3; 15:3; 22:3, 6.


57. AXE

PRIMARY MEANING: The anointed Word or the anointing.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Deut. 19:5; 2 Kg. 6:5; Jer. 51:20; Eph. 6:17; Heb. 4:12.

BASIC INFORMATION: The axe was primarily used as an agricultural tool or a weapon of war. The root word for “axe” is “garaz” (Strong’s #1629) and means “to cut off.” These iron chopping tools were used to clear forests, to cut wood, and to cut and shape stone. As a weapon, there were battle axes (the axe mace or war club) or hatchets of various kinds which could pierce armor. The scepter, a symbol of authority used by ancient kings probably had its origin in the war mace.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ is the anointed Word, “the Sword of the Spirit” (Jn. 1:1, 14; Eph. 6:17; Heb. 4:12). Messiah, the Anointed One (Lk. 4:18; Acts 10:38), is Heaven’s “battle Axe” (Jer. 51:20; Matt. 3:10; Lk. 3:9). He has destroyed every foe and is now the One who tills and shapes the lives of men. Out of His mouth goes a sharp twoedged sword (Rev. 1:16; 2:16; 19:15). God alone can pierce the hardness of our hearts. His is a scepter of righteousness (Heb. 1:8). King Jesus has been given all executive authority in heaven and in earth (Matt. 28:18).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: We must submit our lives (our land) to the cutting edge of the Word of God. The apostle taught that “weapons of our warfare are not carnal, but mighty through God to the pulling down of strongholds” (2 Cor. 10:4). We must stay sharp through prayer and our study of the Word of God lest we lose or have to borrow the anointing (2 Kg. 6:5). The letter to the Hebrews declares, “For the Word of God is quick, and powerful, and sharper than any twoedged sword, piercing even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intents of the heart” (Psa. 149:6; Heb. 4:12).


FURTHER STUDY: See Deut. 20:19; Judg. 9:48; 1 Sam. 13:20-21; 1 Kg. 6:7; 1 Chron. 20:3; Psa. 74:5-6; 119:9, 67, 89, 105, 130, 133; Prov. 1:22-23; Isa. 10:15; 41:15-16; 44:12; Jer. 10:3; 46:22; Ezek. 26:9; Mic. 4:13; 2 Cor. 10:3-6; Eph. 6:10-18; 2 Tim. 2:15.



PRIMARY MEANING: Vicarious, substitutionary sacrifice.

KEY SCRIPTURES: Lev. 16:8, 10, 26; Isa. 53:6; Jn. 3:16; Heb. 9:28.

BASIC MEANING: “Azazel” is rendered as “scapegoat” in the King James Version. It is transliterated from “‘aza’zel” (Strong’s #5799) which means “goat of departure; the scapegoat.” “Azazel” is a combination of two words: “‘ez” (a she-goat, as strong or stout) and “‘azal” (to go away, disappear). It has also been translated as “the goat of removal; banish, separate, send away.” Aaron confessed all the sins of Israel over the scapegoat and then sent it into the wilderness on the Day of Atonement, symbolically taking away their sins. The other goat was sacrificed as a part of the sin offering.


FULFILLED IN CHRIST: Jesus Christ typifies both goats on the Day of Atonement: He is the Lord’s Goat who died to reconcile (Heb. 9:1-14; 13:11-13), and the Scapegoat who lived to reconcile (Rom. 5:10). He is our Sin Offering, the Lord’s goat, who was killed at the cross (Jn. 3:14-16). Isaiah prophesied of Heaven’s Scapegoat, “All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all” (Isa. 53:6). The Savior died for our sins and then carried them away (Psa. 103:3, 12; Jn. 1:29). The Word made flesh was presented alive before the Lord to make an atonement (Lev. 16:10). His soul was made an offering for sin (Isa. 53:10). His entire life and ministry was led by “the hand of a fit man”–the Holy Spirit (Lev. 16:21; Matt. 4:1; 27:31). All the blood offerings of the Old Testament prefigure Jesus’ once-and-for-all sacrifice of Himself, “for it is not possible that the blood of bulls and of goats should take away sins” (Heb. 10:4).


APPLIED TO THE CHRISTIAN: Our transgression and guilt were transferred to the head of the divine Goat who gave Himself for our sins as a ransom for all (Lev. 16:21-22; Gal. 1:4; 1 Tim. 2:6). John testified, “Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends” (Jn. 15:13). Moses revealed that “life” of the flesh is in the blood (Lev. 17:11); this is “nephesh,” the Hebrew word for “soul.” Man is a trichotomy: spirit, soul, and body (1 Thess. 5:23). His soul is his intellect, emotions, and will–what he thinks, feels, and wants. Like the blood of the Lord’s goat that was shed within the veil (Lev. 16:15), prefiguring Him who was led as a sheep to the slaughter (Acts 8:32), true sons are led by the same Spirit to pour out their lives in the presence of God for others (Rom. 8:14; Gal. 5:18). John explained, “Hereby perceive we the love of God, because He laid down His life for us; and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren” (1 Jn. 3:16).

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